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Master Menu

                            GNUPLOT
     
                 An Interactive Plotting Program
                  Thomas Williams & Colin Kelley
               Version 4.0 organized by: Lars Hecking
     
      Copyright (C) 1986 - 1993, 1998, 2004   Thomas Williams, Colin Kelley
     
            Mailing list for comments: gnuplot-info@lists.sourceforge.net
          Mailing list for bug reports: gnuplot-bugs@lists.sourceforge.net
     
              This manual was prepared by Dick Crawford
                        3 December 1998
     
     
     Major contributors (alphabetic order):
     


Node: gnuplot, Next: , Previous: Top, Up: Top

gnuplot


Node: Copyright, Next: , Previous: gnuplot, Up: gnuplot

Copyright

           Copyright (C) 1986 - 1993, 1998, 2004   Thomas Williams, Colin Kelley
     
     

Permission to use, copy, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation.

Permission to modify the software is granted, but not the right to distribute the complete modified source code. Modifications are to be distributed as patches to the released version. Permission to distribute binaries produced by compiling modified sources is granted, provided you

       1. distribute the corresponding source modifications from the
        released version in the form of a patch file along with the binaries,
       2. add special version identification to distinguish your version
        in addition to the base release version number,
       3. provide your name and address as the primary contact for the
        support of your modified version, and
       4. retain our contact information in regard to use of the base
        software.
     

Permission to distribute the released version of the source code along with corresponding source modifications in the form of a patch file is granted with same provisions 2 through 4 for binary distributions.

This software is provided "as is" without express or implied warranty to the extent permitted by applicable law.

           AUTHORS
     
     
           Original Software:
              Thomas Williams,  Colin Kelley.
     
     
           Gnuplot 2.0 additions:
              Russell Lang, Dave Kotz, John Campbell.
     
     
           Gnuplot 3.0 additions:
              Gershon Elber and many others.
     
     
           Gnuplot 4.0 additions:
              See list of contributors at head of this document.
     
     


Node: Introduction, Next: , Previous: Copyright, Up: gnuplot

Introduction

`gnuplot` is a command-driven interactive function and data plotting program. It is case sensitive (commands and function names written in lowercase are not the same as those written in CAPS). All command names may be abbreviated as long as the abbreviation is not ambiguous. Any number of commands may appear on a line (with the exception that `load` or call must be the final command), separated by semicolons (;). Strings are indicated with quotes. They may be either single or double quotation marks, e.g.,

           load "filename"
           cd 'dir'
     
     

although there are some subtle differences (see `syntax` for more details).

Any command-line arguments are assumed to be names of files containing `gnuplot` commands, with the exception of standard X11 arguments, which are processed first. Each file is loaded with the `load` command, in the order specified. `gnuplot` exits after the last file is processed. When no load files are named, `gnuplot` enters into an interactive mode. The special filename "-" is used to denote standard input. See "help batch/interactive" for more details.

Many `gnuplot` commands have multiple options. These options must appear in the proper order, although unwanted ones may be omitted in most cases. Thus if the entire command is "command a b c", then "command a c" will probably work, but "command c a" will fail.

Commands may extend over several input lines by ending each line but the last with a backslash (\). The backslash must be the _last_ character on each line. The effect is as if the backslash and newline were not there. That is, no white space is implied, nor is a comment terminated. Therefore, commenting out a continued line comments out the entire command (see `comments`). But note that if an error occurs somewhere on a multi-line command, the parser may not be able to locate precisely where the error is and in that case will not necessarily point to the correct line.

In this document, curly braces ({}) denote optional arguments and a vertical bar (|) separates mutually exclusive choices. `gnuplot` keywords or help topics are indicated by backquotes or `boldface` (where available). Angle brackets (<>) are used to mark replaceable tokens. In many cases, a default value of the token will be taken for optional arguments if the token is omitted, but these cases are not always denoted with braces around the angle brackets.

For on-line help on any topic, type help followed by the name of the topic or just help or `?` to get a menu of available topics.

The new `gnuplot` user should begin by reading about `plotting` (if on-line, type `help plotting`).

See the simple.dem demo, also available together with other demos on the web page http://www.gnuplot.info/demo/simple.html


Node: Seeking-assistance, Next: , Previous: Introduction, Up: gnuplot

Seeking-assistance

^ <a name="Seeking-assistance"></a>

There is a mailing list for `gnuplot` users. Note, however, that the newsgroup

           comp.graphics.apps.gnuplot
     

is identical to the mailing list (they both carry the same set of messages). We prefer that you read the messages through the newsgroup rather than subscribing to the mailing list. Instructions for subscribing to gnuplot mailing lists may be found via the gnuplot development website on SourceForge http://sourceforge.net/projects/gnuplot

The address for mailing to list members is:

           gnuplot-info@lists.sourceforge.net
     
     

Bug reports and code contributions should be mailed to:

           gnuplot-bugs@lists.sourceforge.net
     
     

The list of those interested in beta-test versions is:

           gnuplot-beta@lists.sourceforge.net
     
     

There is also the canonical (if occassionally out-of-date) gnuplot web page at http://www.gnuplot.info

Before seeking help, please check the FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) list.

When posting a question, please include full details of the version of `gnuplot`, the machine, and operating system you are using. A _small_ script demonstrating the problem may be useful. Function plots are preferable to datafile plots. If email-ing to gnuplot-info, please state whether or not you are subscribed to the list, so that users who use news will know to email a reply to you. There is a form for such postings on the WWW site.


Node: What_is_New_in_Version_4.0, Next: , Previous: Seeking-assistance, Up: gnuplot

What is New in Version 4.0

The previous official release of gnuplot was version 3.7, with subversions up to 3.7.3. Gnuplot version 4.0 contains many new features, which were gradually introduced into a series of development snapshots 3.8a through 3.8k. This section lists major additions and gives a partial list of changes and minor new features. Sample gnuplot scripts demonstrating many of these features are provided in the gnuplot distribution, and are referred to here by name.


Node: Mouse_and_hotkey_support_in_interactive_terminals, Next: , Previous: What_is_New_in_Version_4.0, Up: What_is_New_in_Version_4.0

Mouse and hotkey support in interactive terminals

Interaction with the current plot via mouse and hotkeys is supported for the X11, OS/2 Presentation Manager, ggi and Windows terminals. See `mouse input` for more information on mousing. See help for bind for information on hotkeys. Also see the documentation for individual mousing terminals `ggi`, `pm`, `windows` and `x11`.

Here are briefly some useful hotkeys. Hit 'h' in the interactive interval for help. Hit 'm' to switch mousing on/off. Hit 'g' for grid, 'l' for log and 'e' for replot. Hit 'r' for ruler to measure peak distances (linear scale) or peak ratios (log scale), and '5' for polar coordinates inside a map. Zoom by mouse (MB3), and move in the zoom history by 'p', 'u', 'n'; hit 'a' for autoscale. Use other mouse buttons to put current mouse coordinates to clipboard (double click of MB1), add temporarily or permanently labels to the plot (middle mouse button MB2). Rotate a 3D surface by mouse. Hit spacebar to switch to the gnuplot command window.

Sample script: mousevariables.dem


Node: New_terminal_features, Next: pm3d, Previous: Mouse_and_hotkey_support_in_interactive_terminals, Up: What_is_New_in_Version_4.0

New terminal features

`aqua`: New terminal for Mac OS X. Requires AquaTerm 1.0 or later.

`epslatex`: New terminal. Prepares eps figures for inclusion in LaTeX documents.

`gif`: Support for this terminal has been dropped in favour of the `png` format for legal reasons; under usual configure conditions, old scripts that request gif will work but will produce a `png` file instead.

`ggi`: New full-screen interactive terminal for Linux. Interface to the General Graphics Interface Library.

`pdf`: New terminal exporting Adobe Portable Document Format. Requires libpdf.

`png` and `jpeg`: Support for both PNG and JPEG image output is provided by a new driver via libgd. The new driver supports many more features than the old png driver, including TrueType fonts. Requires libgd. postscript: The PostScript driver now provides an oblique symbol font, and allows run-time inclusion of embedded PostScript fonts. It also supports additional character encodings. See `postscript fontfile` and encoding.

Sample script: fontfile.dem

`svg`: New terminal exporting Scalable Vector Graphics.

`x11`: The X-windows driver now allows you to specify fonts, see `set term x11 x11_fonts`. There is no longer a limit to the number of x11 plot windows opened simultaneously, and each plot window can be given its own title. See `set term x11`.


Node: New_plot_style_pm3d, Next: , Previous: New_terminal_features, Up: What_is_New_in_Version_4.0

New plot style pm3d

The `splot` command is now capable of plotting 2D maps and 3D surfaces colored by greyscale or color palettes. See help for pm3d, palette, cbrange, `set view map`, `set colorbox` and palette.

Sample scripts: pm3d.dem pm3dcolors.dem pm3dgamma.dem


Node: New_plot_style_`filledcurves`, Next: , Previous: New_plot_style_pm3d, Up: What_is_New_in_Version_4.0

New plot style `filledcurves`

The style `filledcurves` allows to fill an area between the drawn curve and a horizontal line.

Sample script: fillcrvs.dem


Node: Filled_boxes, Next: , Previous: New_plot_style_`filledcurves`, Up: What_is_New_in_Version_4.0

Filled boxes

A solid color or patterned fill style can be set for any plot style that contains boxes. See `boxes`, `boxerrorbars`, `boxxyerrorbars`, `candlesticks`, `set style fill`.

Sample scripts: fillstyle.dem candlesticks.dem


Node: New_plot_option_smooth_frequency, Next: , Previous: Filled_boxes, Up: What_is_New_in_Version_4.0

New plot option smooth frequency

Input data can be filtered through several built-in routines for interpolation or approximation of data. See smooth, `frequency`, `unique`.

Sample scripts: step.dem mgr.dem


Node: Improved_text_options, Next: , Previous: New_plot_option_smooth_frequency, Up: What_is_New_in_Version_4.0

Improved text options

Most gnuplot plot commands that produce text labels now accept modifiers to specify text color, font, size, and rotation angle. See label. Not all terminal types support these options, however. The enhanced text mode previously available for the postscript and pm terminals has been extended to other terminal types as well. Terminal types currently supported include dumb, jpeg, pdf, pm, png, postscript, and x11. See `enhanced text`.

Sample scripts: textcolor.dem textrotate.dem


Node: More_text_encodings, Next: , Previous: Improved_text_options, Up: What_is_New_in_Version_4.0

More text encodings

Several terminals, including postscript, `x11` and `pm`, support additional text `encodings`: ISO 8859-1 (Latin 1), ISO 8859-2 (Latin 2), ISO 8859-15 (variant of 8859-1 with Euro sign), KOI8-R (cyrillic), and miscellaneous codepages. See encoding for more details.


Node: Arrows, Next: , Previous: More_text_encodings, Up: What_is_New_in_Version_4.0

Arrows

Single- or double-ended arrows can be placed on a plot individually from the command line or from a data file via the `plot with vectors` style. See arrow, `plotting styles vectors`.

Sample script: arrowstyle.dem


Node: Data_file_format, Next: , Previous: Arrows, Up: What_is_New_in_Version_4.0

Data file format

The new `set datafile` command can be used to specify information about the format of input data files, including the characters used to separate fields, to indicate comment lines, and to specify missing data. Gnuplot now attempts to recognize text fields with embedded blanks as single entities based on the datafile format settings. This allows input from csv (comma-separated value) files such as those exported by spreadsheet programs. See `set datafile`.


Node: Other_changes_and_additions, Next: , Previous: Data_file_format, Up: What_is_New_in_Version_4.0

Other changes and additions

The preferred syntax to undo a command `set <something>` is now `unset <something>` rather than `set no<something>`. The older form has been deprecated. Version 4.0 continues to allow the older syntax, but such backwards compatibility may be lost in future versions.

Commands of the form `set <something> <style>` also are deprectated in favor of the more general form `set style <something> <options>`. Many more plot elements now have style options of their own, including arrows, filled areas, lines, and points. There are also style settings for input data and formatting. Please see style, decimalsign, and `set datafile`.

Improved 2D and 3D clipping (hidden lines).

More consistent point styles and other default formatting styles across all terminals. Please use the test command to check default styles and plotting capabilities for the currently selected terminal type.

The label command supports associated points, and allows you to specify point style and text style (font, rotation, etc). User variables can be included in labels via format specifiers in the label text. See label.

New command `set view map` to select top-view 2D projection of 3D surface plot.

New commands `set term push` and `set term pop` to achieve platform independent restoring of the terminal after printing,

The `load` and save commands accept piped input and output, respectively.

The `history` command (for gnuplot with its own readline, not with GNU readline) now includes several useful options.

The built-in function `rand(x)` has been modified to allow explicit seeding of the pseudo-random number generator. See `random`.

The MS Windows package includes an additional executable `pgnuplot.exe` to support piping command through standard input, which is otherwise not available for graphical applications on this system.


Node: Accompanying_documentation, Previous: Other_changes_and_additions, Up: What_is_New_in_Version_4.0

Accompanying documentation

In directory docs/psdocs/ you may find new information in the gnuplot output postscript file guide, list of postscript symbols in different encodings.

Improved FAQ. Please read it before asking your question in a public forum.

There are plenty of new demos *.dem in the demo/ directory. Please run them, for example by

           load "all.dem"
     

before asking for help. Plots produced by the demo scripts can also be viewed at http://www.gnuplot.info/demo/


Node: Batch/Interactive_Operation, Next: , Previous: What_is_New_in_Version_4.0, Up: gnuplot

Batch/Interactive Operation

`gnuplot` may be executed in either batch or interactive modes, and the two may even be mixed together on many systems.

Any command-line arguments are assumed to be names of files containing `gnuplot` commands (with the exception of standard X11 arguments, which are processed first). Each file is loaded with the `load` command, in the order specified. `gnuplot` exits after the last file is processed. When no load files are named, `gnuplot` enters into an interactive mode. The special filename "-" is used to denote standard input.

Both the exit and quit commands terminate the current command file and `load` the next one, until all have been processed.

Examples:

To launch an interactive session:

           gnuplot
     
     

To launch a batch session using two command files "input1" and "input2":

           gnuplot input1 input2
     
     

To launch an interactive session after an initialization file "header" and followed by another command file "trailer":

           gnuplot header - trailer
     
     


Node: Command-line-editing, Next: , Previous: Batch/Interactive_Operation, Up: gnuplot

Command-line-editing

Command-line editing is supported by the Unix, Atari, VMS, MS-DOS and OS/2 versions of `gnuplot`. Also, a history mechanism allows previous commands to be edited and re-executed. After the command line has been edited, a newline or carriage return will enter the entire line without regard to where the cursor is positioned.

(The readline function in `gnuplot` is not the same as the readline used in GNU Bash and GNU Emacs. If the GNU version is desired, it may be selected instead of the `gnuplot` version at compile time.)

The editing commands are as follows:

           `Line-editing`:
     
     
           ^B    moves back a single character.
           ^F    moves forward a single character.
           ^A    moves to the beginning of the line.
           ^E    moves to the end of the line.
           ^H    and DEL delete the previous character.
           ^D    deletes the current character.
           ^K    deletes from current position to the end of line.
           ^L,^R redraws line in case it gets trashed.
           ^U    deletes the entire line.
           ^W    deletes from the current word to the end of line.
     
     
           `History`:
     
     
           ^P    moves back through history.
           ^N    moves forward through history.
     
     

On the IBM PC, the use of a TSR program such as DOSEDIT or CED may be desired for line editing. The default makefile assumes that this is the case; by default `gnuplot` will be compiled with no line-editing capability. If you want to use `gnuplot`'s line editing, set READLINE in the makefile and add readline.obj to the link file. The following arrow keys may be used on the IBM PC and Atari versions if readline is used:

           Left  Arrow      - same as ^B.
           Right Arrow      - same as ^F.
           Ctrl Left  Arrow - same as ^A.
           Ctrl Right Arrow - same as ^E.
           Up    Arrow      - same as ^P.
           Down  Arrow      - same as ^N.
     
     

The Atari version of readline defines some additional key aliases:

           Undo            - same as ^L.
           Home            - same as ^A.
           Ctrl Home       - same as ^E.
           Esc             - same as ^U.
           Help            - help plus return.
           Ctrl Help       - help.
     
     


Node: Comments, Next: , Previous: Command-line-editing, Up: gnuplot

Comments

Comments are supported as follows: a `#` may appear in most places in a line and `gnuplot` will ignore the rest of the line. It will not have this effect inside quotes, inside numbers (including complex numbers), inside command substitutions, etc. In short, it works anywhere it makes sense to work.

See also `set datafile commentschars` for specifying comment characters in data files.


Node: Coordinates, Next: , Previous: Comments, Up: gnuplot

Coordinates

The commands arrow, key, and label allow you to draw something at an arbitrary position on the graph. This position is specified by the syntax:

           {<system>} <x>, {<system>} <y> {,{<system>} <z>}
     
     

Each <system> can either be `first`, `second`, `graph` or `screen`.

`first` places the x, y, or z coordinate in the system defined by the left and bottom axes; `second` places it in the system defined by the second axes (top and right); `graph` specifies the area within the axes--0,0 is bottom left and 1,1 is top right (for splot, 0,0,0 is bottom left of plotting area; use negative z to get to the base--see ticslevel); and `screen` specifies the screen area (the entire area--not just the portion selected by size), with 0,0 at bottom left and 1,1 at top right.

If the coordinate system for x is not specified, `first` is used. If the system for y is not specified, the one used for x is adopted.

If one (or more) axis is timeseries, the appropriate coordinate should be given as a quoted time string according to the timefmt format string. See xdata and timefmt. `gnuplot` will also accept an integer expression, which will be interpreted as seconds from 1 January 2000.


Node: Environment, Next: , Previous: Coordinates, Up: gnuplot

Environment

A number of shell environment variables are understood by `gnuplot`. None of these are required, but may be useful.

If GNUTERM is defined, it is used as the name of the terminal type to be used. This overrides any terminal type sensed by `gnuplot` on start-up, but is itself overridden by the .gnuplot (or equivalent) start-up file (see `start-up`) and, of course, by later explicit changes.

On Unix, AmigaOS, AtariTOS, MS-DOS and OS/2, GNUHELP may be defined to be the pathname of the HELP file (gnuplot.gih).

On VMS, the logical name GNUPLOT$HELP should be defined as the name of the help library for `gnuplot`. The `gnuplot` help can be put inside any system help library, allowing access to help from both within and outside `gnuplot` if desired.

On Unix, HOME is used as the name of a directory to search for a .gnuplot file if none is found in the current directory. On AmigaOS, AtariTOS, MS-DOS, Windows and OS/2, GNUPLOT is used. On Windows, the NT-specific variable USERPROFILE is tried, too. VMS, SYS$LOGIN: is used. Type `help start-up`.

On Unix, PAGER is used as an output filter for help messages.

On Unix, AtariTOS and AmigaOS, SHELL is used for the shell command. On MS-DOS and OS/2, COMSPEC is used for the shell command.

On MS-DOS, if the BGI or Watcom interface is used, PCTRM is used to tell the maximum resolution supported by your monitor by setting it to S<max. horizontal resolution>. E.g. if your monitor's maximum resolution is 800x600, then use:

           set PCTRM=S800
     

If PCTRM is not set, standard VGA is used.

FIT_SCRIPT may be used to specify a `gnuplot` command to be executed when a fit is interrupted--see `fit`. FIT_LOG specifies the default filename of the logfile maintained by fit.

GNUPLOT_LIB may be used to define additional search directories for data and command files. The variable may contain a single directory name, or a list of directories separated by a platform-specific path separator, eg. ':' on Unix, or ';' on DOS/Windows/OS/2/Amiga platforms. The contents of GNUPLOT_LIB are appended to the loadpath variable, but not saved with the save and `save set` commands.

Several gnuplot terminal drivers access TrueType fonts via the gd library. For these drivers the font search path is controlled by the environmental variable GDFONTPATH. Furthermore, a default font for these drivers may be set via the environmental variable GNUPLOT_DEFAULT_GDFONT.

The postscript terminal uses its own font search path. It is controlled by the environmental variable GNUPLOT_FONTPATH. The format is the same as for GNUPLOT_LIB. The contents of GNUPLOT_FONTPATH are appended to the fontpath variable, but not saved with the save and `save set` commands.


Node: Expressions, Next: , Previous: Environment, Up: gnuplot

Expressions

In general, any mathematical expression accepted by C, FORTRAN, Pascal, or BASIC is valid. The precedence of these operators is determined by the specifications of the C programming language. White space (spaces and tabs) is ignored inside expressions.

Complex constants are expressed as {<real>,<imag>}, where <real> and <imag> must be numerical constants. For example, {3,2} represents 3 + 2i; {0,1} represents 'i' itself. The curly braces are explicitly required here.

Note that gnuplot uses both "real" and "integer" arithmetic, like FORTRAN and C. Integers are entered as "1", "-10", etc; reals as "1.0", "-10.0", "1e1", 3.5e-1, etc. The most important difference between the two forms is in division: division of integers truncates: 5/2 = 2; division of reals does not: 5.0/2.0 = 2.5. In mixed expressions, integers are "promoted" to reals before evaluation: 5/2e0 = 2.5. The result of division of a negative integer by a positive one may vary among compilers. Try a test like "print -5/2" to determine if your system chooses -2 or -3 as the answer.

The integer expression "1/0" may be used to generate an "undefined" flag, which causes a point to ignored; the `ternary` operator gives an example.

The real and imaginary parts of complex expressions are always real, whatever the form in which they are entered: in {3,2} the "3" and "2" are reals, not integers.


Node: Functions, Next: , Previous: Expressions, Up: Expressions

Functions

The functions in `gnuplot` are the same as the corresponding functions in the Unix math library, except that all functions accept integer, real, and complex arguments, unless otherwise noted.

For those functions that accept or return angles that may be given in either degrees or radians (sin(x), cos(x), tan(x), asin(x), acos(x), atan(x), atan2(x) and arg(z)), the unit may be selected by angles, which defaults to radians.


Node: abs, Next: , Previous: Functions, Up: Functions

abs

The `abs(x)` function returns the absolute value of its argument. The returned value is of the same type as the argument.

For complex arguments, abs(x) is defined as the length of x in the complex plane [i.e., sqrt(real(x)**2 + imag(x)**2) ].


Node: acos, Next: , Previous: abs, Up: Functions

acos

The `acos(x)` function returns the arc cosine (inverse cosine) of its argument. `acos` returns its argument in radians or degrees, as selected by angles.


Node: acosh, Next: , Previous: acos, Up: Functions

acosh

The `acosh(x)` function returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of its argument in radians.


Node: arg, Next: , Previous: acosh, Up: Functions

arg

The `arg(x)` function returns the phase of a complex number in radians or degrees, as selected by angles.


Node: asin, Next: , Previous: arg, Up: Functions

asin

The `asin(x)` function returns the arc sin (inverse sin) of its argument. `asin` returns its argument in radians or degrees, as selected by angles.


Node: asinh, Next: , Previous: asin, Up: Functions

asinh

The `asinh(x)` function returns the inverse hyperbolic sin of its argument in radians.


Node: atan, Next: , Previous: asinh, Up: Functions

atan

The `atan(x)` function returns the arc tangent (inverse tangent) of its argument. `atan` returns its argument in radians or degrees, as selected by angles.


Node: atan2, Next: , Previous: atan, Up: Functions

atan2

The `atan2(y,x)` function returns the arc tangent (inverse tangent) of the ratio of the real parts of its arguments. atan2 returns its argument in radians or degrees, as selected by angles, in the correct quadrant.


Node: atanh, Next: , Previous: atan2, Up: Functions

atanh

The `atanh(x)` function returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of its argument in radians.


Node: besj0, Next: , Previous: atanh, Up: Functions

besj0

The `besj0(x)` function returns the j0th Bessel function of its argument. besj0 expects its argument to be in radians.


Node: besj1, Next: , Previous: besj0, Up: Functions

besj1

The `besj1(x)` function returns the j1st Bessel function of its argument. besj1 expects its argument to be in radians.


Node: besy0, Next: , Previous: besj1, Up: Functions

besy0

The `besy0(x)` function returns the y0th Bessel function of its argument. besy0 expects its argument to be in radians.


Node: besy1, Next: , Previous: besy0, Up: Functions

besy1

The `besy1(x)` function returns the y1st Bessel function of its argument. besy1 expects its argument to be in radians.


Node: ceil, Next: , Previous: besy1, Up: Functions

ceil

The `ceil(x)` function returns the smallest integer that is not less than its argument. For complex numbers, ceil returns the smallest integer not less than the real part of its argument.


Node: cos, Next: , Previous: ceil, Up: Functions

cos

The `cos(x)` function returns the cosine of its argument. `cos` accepts its argument in radians or degrees, as selected by angles.


Node: cosh, Next: , Previous: cos, Up: Functions

cosh

The `cosh(x)` function returns the hyperbolic cosine of its argument. cosh expects its argument to be in radians.


Node: erf, Next: , Previous: cosh, Up: Functions

erf

The `erf(x)` function returns the error function of the real part of its argument. If the argument is a complex value, the imaginary component is ignored. See erfc, inverf, and norm.


Node: erfc, Next: , Previous: erf, Up: Functions

erfc

The `erfc(x)` function returns 1.0 - the error function of the real part of its argument. If the argument is a complex value, the imaginary component is ignored. See `erf`, inverf, and norm.


Node: exp, Next: , Previous: erfc, Up: Functions

exp

The `exp(x)` function returns the exponential function of its argument (`e` raised to the power of its argument). On some implementations (notably suns), exp(-x) returns undefined for very large x. A user-defined function like safe(x) = x<-100 ? 0 : exp(x) might prove useful in these cases.


Node: floor, Next: , Previous: exp, Up: Functions

floor

The `floor(x)` function returns the largest integer not greater than its argument. For complex numbers, floor returns the largest integer not greater than the real part of its argument.


Node: gamma, Next: , Previous: floor, Up: Functions

gamma

The `gamma(x)` function returns the gamma function of the real part of its argument. For integer n, gamma(n+1) = n!. If the argument is a complex value, the imaginary component is ignored.


Node: ibeta, Next: , Previous: gamma, Up: Functions

ibeta

The `ibeta(p,q,x)` function returns the incomplete beta function of the real parts of its arguments. p, q > 0 and x in [0:1]. If the arguments are complex, the imaginary components are ignored.


Node: inverf, Next: , Previous: ibeta, Up: Functions

inverf

The `inverf(x)` function returns the inverse error function of the real part of its argument. See `erf` and invnorm.


Node: igamma, Next: , Previous: inverf, Up: Functions

igamma

The `igamma(a,x)` function returns the incomplete gamma function of the real parts of its arguments. a > 0 and x >= 0. If the arguments are complex, the imaginary components are ignored.


Node: imag, Next: , Previous: igamma, Up: Functions

imag

The `imag(x)` function returns the imaginary part of its argument as a real number.


Node: invnorm, Next: , Previous: imag, Up: Functions

invnorm

The `invnorm(x)` function returns the inverse normal distribution function of the real part of its argument. See norm.


Node: int, Next: , Previous: invnorm, Up: Functions

int

The `int(x)` function returns the integer part of its argument, truncated toward zero.


Node: lambertw, Next: , Previous: int, Up: Functions

lambertw

The lambertw function returns the value of the principal branch of Lambert's W function, which is defined by the equation (W(z)*exp(W(z))=z. z must be a real number with z >= -exp(-1).


Node: lgamma, Next: , Previous: lambertw, Up: Functions

lgamma

The `lgamma(x)` function returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function of the real part of its argument. If the argument is a complex value, the imaginary component is ignored.


Node: log, Next: , Previous: lgamma, Up: Functions

log

The `log(x)` function returns the natural logarithm (base `e`) of its argument. See log10.


Node: log10, Next: , Previous: log, Up: Functions

log10

The `log10(x)` function returns the logarithm (base 10) of its argument.


Node: norm, Next: , Previous: log10, Up: Functions

norm

The `norm(x)` function returns the normal distribution function (or Gaussian) of the real part of its argument. See invnorm, `erf` and erfc.


Node: rand, Next: , Previous: norm, Up: Functions

rand

`rand(0)` returns a pseudo random number in the interval [0:1] generated

                from the current value of two internal 32-bit seeds.
     

`rand(-1)` resets both seeds to a standard value. `rand(x)` for x>0 sets both seeds to a value based on the value of x. `rand({x,y})` for x>0 sets seed1 to x and seed2 to y. Note: This behavior has changed starting with gnuplot version 3.8l. Older scripts that expected rand(x>0) to produce sequential pseudo-random numbers from the same seeded sequence must be changed to call rand(0) instead.


Node: real, Next: , Previous: rand, Up: Functions

real

The `real(x)` function returns the real part of its argument.


Node: sgn, Next: , Previous: real, Up: Functions

sgn

The `sgn(x)` function returns 1 if its argument is positive, -1 if its argument is negative, and 0 if its argument is 0. If the argument is a complex value, the imaginary component is ignored.


Node: sin, Next: , Previous: sgn, Up: Functions

sin

The `sin(x)` function returns the sine of its argument. `sin` expects its argument to be in radians or degrees, as selected by angles.


Node: sinh, Next: , Previous: sin, Up: Functions

sinh

The `sinh(x)` function returns the hyperbolic sine of its argument. sinh expects its argument to be in radians.


Node: sqrt, Next: , Previous: sinh, Up: Functions

sqrt

The `sqrt(x)` function returns the square root of its argument.


Node: tan, Next: , Previous: sqrt, Up: Functions

tan

The `tan(x)` function returns the tangent of its argument. `tan` expects its argument to be in radians or degrees, as selected by angles.


Node: tanh, Next: , Previous: tan, Up: Functions

tanh

The `tanh(x)` function returns the hyperbolic tangent of its argument. tanh expects its argument to be in radians.

A few additional functions are also available.


Node: column, Next: , Previous: tanh, Up: Functions

column

`column(x)` may be used only in expressions as part of using manipulations to fits or datafile plots. See using.


Node: defined, Next: , Previous: column, Up: Functions

defined

`defined(X)` returns 1 if a variable named X has been defined, otherwise it returns 0.


Node: tm_hour, Next: , Previous: defined, Up: Functions

tm_hour

The tm_hour function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from 1 Jan 2000. It returns the hour (an integer in the range 0-23) as a real.


Node: tm_mday, Next: , Previous: tm_hour, Up: Functions

tm_mday

The tm_mday function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from 1 Jan 2000. It returns the day of the month (an integer in the range 1-31) as a real.


Node: tm_min, Next: , Previous: tm_mday, Up: Functions

tm_min

The tm_min function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from 1 Jan 2000. It returns the minute (an integer in the range 0-59) as a real.


Node: tm_mon, Next: , Previous: tm_min, Up: Functions

tm_mon

The tm_mon function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from 1 Jan 2000. It returns the month (an integer in the range 0-11) as a real.


Node: tm_sec, Next: , Previous: tm_mon, Up: Functions

tm_sec

The tm_sec function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from 1 Jan 2000. It returns the second (an integer in the range 0-59) as a real.


Node: tm_wday, Next: , Previous: tm_sec, Up: Functions

tm_wday

The tm_wday function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from 1 Jan 2000. It returns the day of the week (an integer in the range 0-6) as a real.


Node: tm_yday, Next: , Previous: tm_wday, Up: Functions

tm_yday

The tm_yday function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from 1 Jan 2000. It returns the day of the year (an integer in the range 1-366) as a real.


Node: tm_year, Next: , Previous: tm_yday, Up: Functions

tm_year

The tm_year function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from 1 Jan 2000. It returns the year (an integer) as a real.


Node: valid, Next: , Previous: tm_year, Up: Functions

valid

`valid(x)` may be used only in expressions as part of using manipulations to fits or datafile plots. See using.

See also airfoil.dem: use of functions and complex variables for airfoils demo.


Node: Random_number_generator, Previous: valid, Up: Functions

Random number generator

The behavior of the built-in function `rand(x)` has changed as of version 3.8l. Older scripts that expected rand(x>0) to produce sequential pseudo-random numbers from the same seeded sequence must be changed to call rand(0) instead. The current behavior is as follows:

      `rand(0)`  returns a pseudo random number in the interval [0:1] generated
                 from the current value of two internal 32-bit seeds.
      `rand(-1)` resets both seeds to a standard value.
      `rand(x)`  for x>0 sets both seeds to a value based on the value of x.
      `rand({x,y})` for x>0 sets seed1 to x and seed2 to y.
     
     


Node: Operators, Next: , Previous: Functions, Up: Expressions

Operators

The operators in `gnuplot` are the same as the corresponding operators in the C programming language, except that all operators accept integer, real, and complex arguments, unless otherwise noted. The ** operator (exponentiation) is supported, as in FORTRAN.

Parentheses may be used to change order of evaluation.


Node: Unary, Next: , Previous: Operators, Up: Operators

Unary

The following is a list of all the unary operators and their usages:

         Symbol      Example    Explanation
           -           -a          unary minus
           +           +a          unary plus (no-operation)
           ~           ~a        * one's complement
           !           !a        * logical negation
           !           a!        * factorial
           $           $3        * call arg/column during using manipulation
     
     

(*) Starred explanations indicate that the operator requires an integer argument.

Operator precedence is the same as in Fortran and C. As in those languages, parentheses may be used to change the order of operation. Thus -2**2 = -4, but (-2)**2 = 4.

The factorial operator returns a real number to allow a greater range.


Node: Binary, Next: , Previous: Unary, Up: Operators

Binary

The following is a list of all the binary operators and their usages:

         Symbol       Example      Explanation
           **          a**b          exponentiation
           *           a*b           multiplication
           /           a/b           division
           %           a%b         * modulo
           +           a+b           addition
           -           a-b           subtraction
           ==          a==b          equality
           !=          a!=b          inequality
           <           a<b           less than
           <=          a<=b          less than or equal to
           >           a>b           greater than
           >=          a>=b          greater than or equal to
           &           a&b         * bitwise AND
           ^           a^b         * bitwise exclusive OR
           |           a|b         * bitwise inclusive OR
           &&          a&&b        * logical AND
           ||          a||b        * logical OR
     
     

(*) Starred explanations indicate that the operator requires integer arguments.

Logical AND (&&) and OR (||) short-circuit the way they do in C. That is, the second `&&` operand is not evaluated if the first is false; the second `||` operand is not evaluated if the first is true.


Node: Ternary, Previous: Binary, Up: Operators

Ternary

There is a single ternary operator:

         Symbol       Example      Explanation
           ?:          a?b:c     ternary operation
     
     

The ternary operator behaves as it does in C. The first argument (a), which must be an integer, is evaluated. If it is true (non-zero), the second argument (b) is evaluated and returned; otherwise the third argument (c) is evaluated and returned.

The ternary operator is very useful both in constructing piecewise functions and in plotting points only when certain conditions are met.

Examples:

Plot a function that is to equal sin(x) for 0 <= x < 1, 1/x for 1 <= x < 2, and undefined elsewhere:

           f(x) = 0<=x && x<1 ? sin(x) : 1<=x && x<2 ? 1/x : 1/0
           plot f(x)
     

Note that `gnuplot` quietly ignores undefined values, so the final branch of the function (1/0) will produce no plottable points. Note also that f(x) will be plotted as a continuous function across the discontinuity if a line style is used. To plot it discontinuously, create separate functions for the two pieces. (Parametric functions are also useful for this purpose.)

For data in a file, plot the average of the data in columns 2 and 3 against the datum in column 1, but only if the datum in column 4 is non-negative:

           plot 'file' using 1:( $4<0 ? 1/0 : ($2+$3)/2 )
     
     

Please see using for an explanation of the using syntax.


Node: User-defined, Previous: Operators, Up: Expressions

User-defined

New user-defined variables and functions of one through five variables may be declared and used anywhere, including on the `plot` command itself.

User-defined function syntax:

           <func-name>( <dummy1> {,<dummy2>} ... {,<dummy5>} ) = <expression>
     
     

where <expression> is defined in terms of <dummy1> through <dummy5>.

User-defined variable syntax:

           <variable-name> = <constant-expression>
     
     

Examples:

           w = 2
           q = floor(tan(pi/2 - 0.1))
           f(x) = sin(w*x)
           sinc(x) = sin(pi*x)/(pi*x)
           delta(t) = (t == 0)
           ramp(t) = (t > 0) ? t : 0
           min(a,b) = (a < b) ? a : b
           comb(n,k) = n!/(k!*(n-k)!)
           len3d(x,y,z) = sqrt(x*x+y*y+z*z)
           plot f(x) = sin(x*a), a = 0.2, f(x), a = 0.4, f(x)
     
     

Note that the variable `pi` is already defined. But it is in no way magic; you may redefine it to be whatever you like.

Valid names are the same as in most programming languages: they must begin with a letter, but subsequent characters may be letters, digits, "$", or "_". Note, however, that the `fit` mechanism uses several variables with names that begin "FIT_". It is safest to avoid using such names. "FIT_LIMIT", however, is one that you may wish to redefine. See the documentation on `fit` for details.

See `show functions`, variables, and `fit`.


Node: Glossary, Next: , Previous: Expressions, Up: gnuplot

Glossary

Throughout this document an attempt has been made to maintain consistency of nomenclature. This cannot be wholly successful because as `gnuplot` has evolved over time, certain command and keyword names have been adopted that preclude such perfection. This section contains explanations of the way some of these terms are used.

A "page" or "screen" is the entire area addressable by `gnuplot`. On a monitor, it is the full screen; on a plotter, it is a single sheet of paper.

A screen may contain one or more "plots". A plot is defined by an abscissa and an ordinate, although these need not actually appear on it, as well as the margins and any text written therein.

A plot contains one "graph". A graph is defined by an abscissa and an ordinate, although these need not actually appear on it.

A graph may contain one or more "lines". A line is a single function or data set. "Line" is also a plotting style. The word will also be used in sense "a line of text". Presumably the context will remove any ambiguity.

The lines on a graph may have individual names. These may be listed together with a sample of the plotting style used to represent them in the "key", sometimes also called the "legend".

The word "title" occurs with multiple meanings in `gnuplot`. In this document, it will always be preceded by the adjective "plot", "line", or "key" to differentiate among them.

A 2-d graph may have up to four labelled axes. The names of the four axes for these usages are "x" for the axis along the bottom border of the plot, "y" for the left border, "x2" for the top border, and "y2" for the right border.

A 3-d graph may have up to three labelled axes - "x", "y" and "z". It is not possible to say where on the graph any particular axis will fall because you can change the direction from which the graph is seen with view.

When discussing data files, the term "record" will be resurrected and used to denote a single line of text in the file, that is, the characters between newline or end-of-record characters. A "point" is the datum extracted from a single record. A "datablock" is a set of points from consecutive records, delimited by blank records. A line, when referred to in the context of a data file, is a subset of a datablock.


Node: mouse_input, Next: , Previous: Glossary, Up: gnuplot

mouse input

The `x11`, `pm`, `windows`, and `ggi` terminals allow interaction with the current plot using the mouse. They also support the definition of hotkeys to activate pre-defined functions by hitting a single key while the mouse focus is in the active plot window. It is even possible to combine mouse input with `batch` command scripts, by invoking the command `pause mouse` and then using the mouse variables returned by mouse clicking as parameters for subsequent scripted actions. See bind and variables. See also the command `set mouse`.


Node: bind, Next: , Previous: mouse_input, Up: mouse_input

bind

The bind allows defining or redefining a hotkey, i.e. a sequence of gnuplot commands which will be executed when a certain key or key sequence is pressed while the driver's window has the input focus. Note that bind is only available if gnuplot was compiled with `mouse` support and it is used by all mouse-capable terminals. Bindings overwrite the builtin bindings (like in every real editor), except <space> and 'q' which cannot be rebound. Mouse buttons cannot be rebound.

Note that multikey-bindings with modifiers have to be quoted.

Syntax:

           bind [<key-sequence>] ["<gnuplot commands>"]
           bind!
     
     

Examples:

- set bindings:

         bind a "replot"
         bind "ctrl-a" "plot x*x"
         bind "ctrl-alt-a" 'print "great"'
         bind Home "set view 60,30; replot"
     
     

- show bindings:

         bind "ctrl-a"          # shows the binding for ctrl-a
         bind                   # shows all bindings
     
     

- remove bindings:

         bind "ctrl-alt-a" ""   # removes binding for ctrl-alt-a
                                  (note that builtins cannot be removed)
         bind!                  # installs default (builtin) bindings
     
     

- bind a key to toggle something:

       v=0
       bind "ctrl-r" "v=v+1;if(v%2)set term x11 noraise; else set term x11 raise"
     
     

Modifiers (ctrl / alt) are case insensitive, keys not:

         ctrl-alt-a == CtRl-alT-a
         ctrl-alt-a != ctrl-alt-A
     
     

List of modifiers (alt == meta):

         ctrl, alt
     
     

List of supported special keys:

        "BackSpace", "Tab", "Linefeed", "Clear", "Return", "Pause", "Scroll_Lock",
        "Sys_Req", "Escape", "Delete", "Home", "Left", "Up", "Right", "Down",
        "PageUp", "PageDown", "End", "Begin",
     
     
        "KP_Space", "KP_Tab", "KP_Enter", "KP_F1", "KP_F2", "KP_F3", "KP_F4",
        "KP_Home", "KP_Left", "KP_Up", "KP_Right", "KP_Down", "KP_PageUp",
        "KP_PageDown", "KP_End", "KP_Begin", "KP_Insert", "KP_Delete", "KP_Equal",
        "KP_Multiply", "KP_Add", "KP_Separator", "KP_Subtract", "KP_Decimal",
        "KP_Divide",
     
     
        "KP_1" - "KP_9", "F1" - "F12"
     
     

See also help for `mouse` and if.


Node: mouse_variables, Previous: bind, Up: mouse_input

mouse_variables

When mousing is active, clicking in the active window will set several user variables that can be accessed from the gnuplot command line. The coordinates of the mouse at the time of the click are stored in MOUSE_X MOUSE_Y MOUSE_X2 and MOUSE_Y2. The mouse button clicked, and any meta-keys active at that time, are stored in MOUSE_BUTTON MOUSE_SHIFT MOUSE_ALT and MOUSE_CTRL. These variables are set to undefined at the start of every plot, and only become defined in the event of a mouse click in the active plot window. To determine from a script if the mouse has been clicked in the active plot window, it is sufficient to test for any one of these variables being defined.

           plot 'something'
           set pause mouse
           if (defined(MOUSE_BUTTON)) call 'something_else'; \
           else print "No mouse click."
     
     


Node: Plotting, Next: , Previous: mouse_input, Up: gnuplot

Plotting

There are three `gnuplot` commands which actually create a plot: `plot`, `splot` and replot. `plot` generates 2-d plots, `splot` generates 3-d plots (actually 2-d projections, of course), and replot appends its arguments to the previous `plot` or `splot` and executes the modified command.

Much of the general information about plotting can be found in the discussion of `plot`; information specific to 3-d can be found in the `splot` section.

`plot` operates in either rectangular or polar coordinates - see `set polar` for details of the latter. `splot` operates only in rectangular coordinates, but the mapping command allows for a few other coordinate systems to be treated. In addition, the using option allows both `plot` and `splot` to treat almost any coordinate system you'd care to define.

`plot` also lets you use each of the four borders - x (bottom), x2 (top), y (left) and y2 (right) - as an independent axis. The `axes` option lets you choose which pair of axes a given function or data set is plotted against. A full complement of `set` commands exists to give you complete control over the scales and labelling of each axis. Some commands have the name of an axis built into their names, such as xlabel. Other commands have one or more axis names as options, such as `set logscale xy`. Commands and options controlling the z axis have no effect on 2-d graphs.

`splot` can plot surfaces and contours in addition to points and/or lines. In addition to `splot`, see isosamples for information about defining the grid for a 3-d function; `splot datafile` for information about the requisite file structure for 3-d data values; and contour and cntrparam for information about contours.

In `splot`, control over the scales and labels of the axes are the same as with `plot`, except that commands and options controlling the x2 and y2 axes have no effect whereas of course those controlling the z axis do take effect.

`splot` allows plotting of binary and matrix data, but only for specific data formats. See `splot` for details.


Node: Start-up, Next: , Previous: Plotting, Up: gnuplot

Start-up

^ <a name="start-up"></a>

When `gnuplot` is run, it looks for an initialization file to load. This file is called `.gnuplot` on Unix and AmigaOS systems, and `GNUPLOT.INI` on other systems. If this file is not found in the current directory, the program will look for it in the HOME directory (under AmigaOS, Atari(single)TOS, MS-DOS, Windows and OS/2, the environment variable `GNUPLOT` should contain the name of this directory; on Windows NT, it will use `USERPROFILE` if GNUPLOT isn't defined). Note: if NOCWDRC is defined during the installation, `gnuplot` will not read from the current directory.

If the initialization file is found, `gnuplot` executes the commands in it. These may be any legal `gnuplot` commands, but typically they are limited to setting the terminal and defining frequently-used functions or variables.


Node: Substitution, Next: , Previous: Start-up, Up: gnuplot

Substitution

Command-line substitution is specified by a system command enclosed in backquotes. This command is spawned and the output it produces replaces the name of the command (and backquotes) on the command line. Some implementations also support pipes; see special-filenames.

Command-line substitution can be used anywhere on the `gnuplot` command line, except inside strings delimited by single quotes.

Example:

This will run the program `leastsq` and replace `leastsq` (including backquotes) on the command line with its output:

           f(x) = `leastsq`
     
     

or, in VMS

           f(x) = `run leastsq`
     
     

These will generate labels with the current time and userid:

           set label "generated on `date +%Y-%m-%d`by `whoami`" at 1,1
           set timestamp "generated on %Y-%m-%d by `whoami`"
     
     


Node: Syntax, Next: , Previous: Substitution, Up: gnuplot

Syntax

The general rules of syntax and punctuation in `gnuplot` are that keywords and options are order-dependent. Options and any accompanying parameters are separated by spaces whereas lists and coordinates are separated by commas. Ranges are separated by colons and enclosed in brackets [], text and file names are enclosed in quotes, and a few miscellaneous things are enclosed in parentheses. Braces {} are used for a few special purposes.

Commas are used to separate coordinates on the `set` commands arrow, key, and label; the list of variables being fitted (the list after the `via` keyword on the `fit` command); lists of discrete contours or the loop parameters which specify them on the cntrparam command; the arguments of the `set` commands dgrid3d, dummy, isosamples, offsets, origin, samples, size, `time`, and view; lists of tics or the loop parameters which specify them; the offsets for titles and axis labels; parametric functions to be used to calculate the x, y, and z coordinates on the `plot`, replot and `splot` commands; and the complete sets of keywords specifying individual plots (data sets or functions) on the `plot`, replot and `splot` commands.

Parentheses are used to delimit sets of explicit tics (as opposed to loop parameters) and to indicate computations in the using filter of the `fit`, `plot`, replot and `splot` commands.

(Parentheses and commas are also used as usual in function notation.)

Brackets are used to delimit ranges, whether they are given on `set`, `plot` or `splot` commands.

Colons are used to separate extrema in `range` specifications (whether they are given on `set`, `plot` or `splot` commands) and to separate entries in the using filter of the `plot`, replot, `splot` and `fit` commands.

Semicolons are used to separate commands given on a single command line.

Braces are used in text to be specially processed by some terminals, like postscript. They are also used to denote complex numbers: {3,2} = 3 + 2i.

Text may be enclosed in single- or double-quotes. Backslash processing of sequences like \n (newline) and \345 (octal character code) is performed for double-quoted strings, but not for single-quoted strings.

The justification is the same for each line of a multi-line string. Thus the center-justified string

           "This is the first line of text.\nThis is the second line."
     

will produce

                            This is the first line of text.
                               This is the second line.
     

but

           'This is the first line of text.\nThis is the second line.'
     

will produce

               This is the first line of text.\nThis is the second line.
     
     

Filenames may be entered with either single- or double-quotes. In this manual the command examples generally single-quote filenames and double-quote other string tokens for clarity.

At present you should not embed \n inside {} when using the postscript terminal.

The EEPIC, Imagen, Uniplex, LaTeX, and TPIC drivers allow a newline to be specified by \\ in a single-quoted string or \\\\ in a double-quoted string.

Back-quotes are used to enclose system commands for substitution.


Node: Time/Date_data, Previous: Syntax, Up: gnuplot

Time/Date data

^ <a name="Time/Date data"></a> ^ <a name="Time/date"></a>

`gnuplot` supports the use of time and/or date information as input data. This feature is activated by the commands `set xdata time`, `set ydata time`, etc.

Internally all times and dates are converted to the number of seconds from the year 2000. The command timefmt defines the format for all inputs: data files, ranges, tics, label positions--in short, anything that accepts a data value must receive it in this format. Since only one input format can be in force at a given time, all time/date quantities being input at the same time must be presented in the same format. Thus if both x and y data in a file are time/date, they must be in the same format.

The conversion to and from seconds assumes Universal Time (which is the same as Greenwich Standard Time). There is no provision for changing the time zone or for daylight savings. If all your data refer to the same time zone (and are all either daylight or standard) you don't need to worry about these things. But if the absolute time is crucial for your application, you'll need to convert to UT yourself.

Commands like xrange will re-interpret the integer according to timefmt. If you change timefmt, and then `show` the quantity again, it will be displayed in the new timefmt. For that matter, if you give the deactivation command (like xdata), the quantity will be shown in its numerical form.

The command `set format` defines the format that will be used for tic labels, whether or not the specified axis is time/date.

If time/date information is to be plotted from a file, the using option _must_ be used on the `plot` or `splot` command. These commands simply use white space to separate columns, but white space may be embedded within the time/date string. If you use tabs as a separator, some trial-and-error may be necessary to discover how your system treats them.

The following example demonstrates time/date plotting.

Suppose the file "data" contains records like

           03/21/95 10:00  6.02e23
     
     

This file can be plotted by

           set xdata time
           set timefmt "%m/%d/%y"
           set xrange ["03/21/95":"03/22/95"]
           set format x "%m/%d"
           set timefmt "%m/%d/%y %H:%M"
           plot "data" using 1:3
     
     

which will produce xtic labels that look like "03/21".

See the descriptions of each command for more details.


Node: Commands, Next: , Previous: gnuplot, Up: Top

Commands

This section lists the commands acceptable to `gnuplot` in alphabetical order. Printed versions of this document contain all commands; on-line versions may not be complete. Indeed, on some systems there may be no commands at all listed under this heading.

Note that in most cases unambiguous abbreviations for command names and their options are permissible, i.e., "`p f(x) w li`" instead of "`plot f(x) with lines`".

In the syntax descriptions, braces ({}) denote optional arguments and a vertical bar (|) separates mutually exclusive choices.


Node: cd, Next: , Previous: Commands, Up: Commands

cd

The cd command changes the working directory.

Syntax:

           cd '<directory-name>'
     
     

The directory name must be enclosed in quotes.

Examples:

           cd 'subdir'
           cd ".."
     
     

DOS users _must_ use single-quotes--backslash [\] has special significance inside double-quotes. For example,

           cd "c:\newdata"
     

fails, but

           cd 'c:\newdata'
     

works as expected.


Node: call, Next: , Previous: cd, Up: Commands

call

The call command is identical to the load command with one exception: you can have up to ten additional parameters to the command (delimited according to the standard parser rules) which can be substituted into the lines read from the file. As each line is read from the called input file, it is scanned for the sequence `$` (dollar-sign) followed by a digit (0-9). If found, the sequence is replaced by the corresponding parameter from the call command line. If the parameter was specified as a string in the call line, it is substituted without its enclosing quotes. `$` followed by any character other than a digit will be that character. E.g. use `$$` to get a single `$`. Providing more than ten parameters on the call command line will cause an error. A parameter that was not provided substitutes as nothing. Files being called may themselves contain call or `load` commands.

The call command _must_ be the last command on a multi-command line.

Syntax:

           call "<input-file>" <parameter-0> <parm-1> ... <parm-9>
     
     

The name of the input file must be enclosed in quotes, and it is recommended that parameters are similarly enclosed in quotes (future versions of gnuplot may treat quoted and unquoted arguments differently).

Example:

If the file 'calltest.gp' contains the line:

           print "p0=$0 p1=$1 p2=$2 p3=$3 p4=$4 p5=$5 p6=$6 p7=x$7x"
     
     

entering the command:

           call 'calltest.gp' "abcd" 1.2 + "'quoted'" -- "$2"
     
     

will display:

           p0=abcd p1=1.2 p2=+ p3='quoted' p4=- p5=- p6=$2 p7=xx
     
     

NOTE: there is a clash in syntax with the datafile using callback operator. Use `$$n` or `column(n)` to access column n from a datafile inside a called datafile plot.


Node: clear, Next: , Previous: call, Up: Commands

clear

The clear command erases the current screen or output device as specified by output. This usually generates a formfeed on hardcopy devices. Use terminal to set the device type.

For some terminals clear erases only the portion of the plotting surface defined by size, so for these it can be used in conjunction with multiplot to create an inset.

Example:

           set multiplot
           plot sin(x)
           set origin 0.5,0.5
           set size 0.4,0.4
           clear
           plot cos(x)
           unset multiplot
     
     

Please see multiplot, size, and origin for details of these commands.


Node: exit, Next: , Previous: clear, Up: Commands

exit

The commands exit and quit and the END-OF-FILE character will exit the current `gnuplot` command file and `load` the next one. See "help batch/interactive" for more details.

Each of these commands will clear the output device (as does the clear command) before exiting.


Node: fit, Next: , Previous: exit, Up: Commands

fit

The `fit` command can fit a user-defined function to a set of data points (x,y) or (x,y,z), using an implementation of the nonlinear least-squares (NLLS) Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm. Any user-defined variable occurring in the function body may serve as a fit parameter, but the return type of the function must be real.

Syntax:

           fit {[xrange] {[yrange]}} <function> '<datafile>'
               {datafile-modifiers}
               via '<parameter file>' | <var1>{,<var2>,...}
     
     

Ranges may be specified to temporarily limit the data which is to be fitted; any out-of-range data points are ignored. The syntax is

           [{dummy_variable=}{<min>}{:<max>}],
     

analogous to `plot`; see ranges.

<function> is any valid `gnuplot` expression, although it is usual to use a previously user-defined function of the form f(x) or f(x,y).

<datafile> is treated as in the `plot` command. All the `plot datafile` modifiers (using, every,...) except smooth and the deprecated thru are applicable to `fit`. See `plot datafile`.

The default data formats for fitting functions with a single independent variable, y=f(x), are {x:}y or x:y:s; those formats can be changed with the datafile using qualifier. The third item (a column number or an expression), if present, is interpreted as the standard deviation of the corresponding y value and is used to compute a weight for the datum, 1/s**2. Otherwise, all data points are weighted equally, with a weight of one. Note that if you don't specify a using option at all, no y deviations are read from the datafile even if it does have a third column, so you'll always get unit weights.

To fit a function with two independent variables, z=f(x,y), the required format is using with four items, x:y:z:s. The complete format must be given--no default columns are assumed for a missing token. Weights for each data point are evaluated from 's' as above. If error estimates are not available, a constant value can be specified as a constant expression (see using), e.g., `using 1:2:3:(1)`.

Multiple datasets may be simultaneously fit with functions of one independent variable by making y a 'pseudo-variable', e.g., the dataline number, and fitting as two independent variables. See multi-branch.

The `via` qualifier specifies which parameters are to be adjusted, either directly, or by referencing a parameter file.

Examples:

           f(x) = a*x**2 + b*x + c
           g(x,y) = a*x**2 + b*y**2 + c*x*y
           FIT_LIMIT = 1e-6
           fit f(x) 'measured.dat' via 'start.par'
           fit f(x) 'measured.dat' using 3:($7-5) via 'start.par'
           fit f(x) './data/trash.dat' using 1:2:3 via a, b, c
           fit g(x,y) 'surface.dat' using 1:2:3:(1) via a, b, c
     
     

After each iteration step, detailed information about the current state of the fit is written to the display. The same information about the initial and final states is written to a log file, "fit.log". This file is always appended to, so as to not lose any previous fit history; it should be deleted or renamed as desired. By using the command `set fit logfile`, the name of the log file can be changed.

If gnuplot was built with this option, and you activated it using `set fit errorvariables`, the error for each fitted parameter will be stored in a variable named like the parameter, but with "_err" appended. Thus the errors can be used as input for further computations.

The fit may be interrupted by pressing Ctrl-C (any key but Ctrl-C under MSDOS and Atari Multitasking Systems). After the current iteration completes, you have the option to (1) stop the fit and accept the current parameter values, (2) continue the fit, (3) execute a `gnuplot` command as specified by the environment variable FIT_SCRIPT. The default for FIT_SCRIPT is replot, so if you had previously plotted both the data and the fitting function in one graph, you can display the current state of the fit.

Once `fit` has finished, the update command may be used to store final values in a file for subsequent use as a parameter file. See update for details.


Node: adjustable_parameters, Next: , Previous: fit, Up: fit

adjustable parameters

There are two ways that `via` can specify the parameters to be adjusted, either directly on the command line or indirectly, by referencing a parameter file. The two use different means to set initial values.

Adjustable parameters can be specified by a comma-separated list of variable names after the `via` keyword. Any variable that is not already defined is created with an initial value of 1.0. However, the fit is more likely to converge rapidly if the variables have been previously declared with more appropriate starting values.

In a parameter file, each parameter to be varied and a corresponding initial value are specified, one per line, in the form

           varname = value
     
     

Comments, marked by '#', and blank lines are permissible. The special form

           varname = value       # FIXED
     
     

means that the variable is treated as a 'fixed parameter', initialized by the parameter file, but not adjusted by `fit`. For clarity, it may be useful to designate variables as fixed parameters so that their values are reported by `fit`. The keyword `# FIXED` has to appear in exactly this form.


Node: short_introduction, Next: , Previous: adjustable_parameters, Up: fit

short introduction

`fit` is used to find a set of parameters that 'best' fits your data to your user-defined function. The fit is judged on the basis of the sum of the squared differences or 'residuals' (SSR) between the input data points and the function values, evaluated at the same places. This quantity is often called 'chisquare' (i.e., the Greek letter chi, to the power of 2). The algorithm attempts to minimize SSR, or more precisely, WSSR, as the residuals are 'weighted' by the input data errors (or 1.0) before being squared; see `fit error_estimates` for details.

That's why it is called 'least-squares fitting'. Let's look at an example to see what is meant by 'non-linear', but first we had better go over some terms. Here it is convenient to use z as the dependent variable for user-defined functions of either one independent variable, z=f(x), or two independent variables, z=f(x,y). A parameter is a user-defined variable that `fit` will adjust, i.e., an unknown quantity in the function declaration. Linearity/non-linearity refers to the relationship of the dependent variable, z, to the parameters which `fit` is adjusting, not of z to the independent variables, x and/or y. (To be technical, the second {and higher} derivatives of the fitting function with respect to the parameters are zero for a linear least-squares problem).

For linear least-squares (LLS), the user-defined function will be a sum of simple functions, not involving any parameters, each multiplied by one parameter. NLLS handles more complicated functions in which parameters can be used in a large number of ways. An example that illustrates the difference between linear and nonlinear least-squares is the Fourier series. One member may be written as

          z=a*sin(c*x) + b*cos(c*x).
     

If a and b are the unknown parameters and c is constant, then estimating values of the parameters is a linear least-squares problem. However, if c is an unknown parameter, the problem is nonlinear.

In the linear case, parameter values can be determined by comparatively simple linear algebra, in one direct step. However LLS is a special case which is also solved along with more general NLLS problems by the iterative procedure that `gnuplot` uses. `fit` attempts to find the minimum by doing a search. Each step (iteration) calculates WSSR with a new set of parameter values. The Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm selects the parameter values for the next iteration. The process continues until a preset criterion is met, either (1) the fit has "converged" (the relative change in WSSR is less than FIT_LIMIT), or (2) it reaches a preset iteration count limit, FIT_MAXITER (see variables). The fit may also be interrupted and subsequently halted from the keyboard (see `fit`).

Often the function to be fitted will be based on a model (or theory) that attempts to describe or predict the behaviour of the data. Then `fit` can be used to find values for the free parameters of the model, to determine how well the data fits the model, and to estimate an error range for each parameter. See `fit error_estimates`.

Alternatively, in curve-fitting, functions are selected independent of a model (on the basis of experience as to which are likely to describe the trend of the data with the desired resolution and a minimum number of parameters*functions.) The `fit` solution then provides an analytic representation of the curve.

However, if all you really want is a smooth curve through your data points, the smooth option to `plot` may be what you've been looking for rather than `fit`.


Node: error_estimates, Next: , Previous: short_introduction, Up: fit

error estimates

In `fit`, the term "error" is used in two different contexts, data error estimates and parameter error estimates.

Data error estimates are used to calculate the relative weight of each data point when determining the weighted sum of squared residuals, WSSR or chisquare. They can affect the parameter estimates, since they determine how much influence the deviation of each data point from the fitted function has on the final values. Some of the `fit` output information, including the parameter error estimates, is more meaningful if accurate data error estimates have been provided.

The 'statistical overview' describes some of the `fit` output and gives some background for the 'practical guidelines'.


Node: statistical_overview, Next: , Previous: error_estimates, Up: error_estimates

statistical overview

The theory of non-linear least-squares (NLLS) is generally described in terms of a normal distribution of errors, that is, the input data is assumed to be a sample from a population having a given mean and a Gaussian (normal) distribution about the mean with a given standard deviation. For a sample of sufficiently large size, and knowing the population standard deviation, one can use the statistics of the chisquare distribution to describe a "goodness of fit" by looking at the variable often called "chisquare". Here, it is sufficient to say that a reduced chisquare (chisquare/degrees of freedom, where degrees of freedom is the number of datapoints less the number of parameters being fitted) of 1.0 is an indication that the weighted sum of squared deviations between the fitted function and the data points is the same as that expected for a random sample from a population characterized by the function with the current value of the parameters and the given standard deviations.

If the standard deviation for the population is not constant, as in counting statistics where variance = counts, then each point should be individually weighted when comparing the observed sum of deviations and the expected sum of deviations.

At the conclusion `fit` reports 'stdfit', the standard deviation of the fit, which is the rms of the residuals, and the variance of the residuals, also called 'reduced chisquare' when the data points are weighted. The number of degrees of freedom (the number of data points minus the number of fitted parameters) is used in these estimates because the parameters used in calculating the residuals of the datapoints were obtained from the same data.

To estimate confidence levels for the parameters, one can use the minimum chisquare obtained from the fit and chisquare statistics to determine the value of chisquare corresponding to the desired confidence level, but considerably more calculation is required to determine the combinations of parameters which produce such values.

Rather than determine confidence intervals, `fit` reports parameter error estimates which are readily obtained from the variance-covariance matrix after the final iteration. By convention, these estimates are called "standard errors" or "asymptotic standard errors", since they are calculated in the same way as the standard errors (standard deviation of each parameter) of a linear least-squares problem, even though the statistical conditions for designating the quantity calculated to be a standard deviation are not generally valid for the NLLS problem. The asymptotic standard errors are generally over-optimistic and should not be used for determining confidence levels, but are useful for qualitative purposes.

The final solution also produces a correlation matrix, which gives an indication of the correlation of parameters in the region of the solution; if one parameter is changed, increasing chisquare, does changing another compensate? The main diagonal elements, autocorrelation, are all 1; if all parameters were independent, all other elements would be nearly 0. Two variables which completely compensate each other would have an off-diagonal element of unit magnitude, with a sign depending on whether the relation is proportional or inversely proportional. The smaller the magnitudes of the off-diagonal elements, the closer the estimates of the standard deviation of each parameter would be to the asymptotic standard error.


Node: practical_guidelines, Previous: statistical_overview, Up: error_estimates

practical guidelines

If you have a basis for assigning weights to each data point, doing so lets you make use of additional knowledge about your measurements, e.g., take into account that some points may be more reliable than others. That may affect the final values of the parameters.

Weighting the data provides a basis for interpreting the additional `fit` output after the last iteration. Even if you weight each point equally, estimating an average standard deviation rather than using a weight of 1 makes WSSR a dimensionless variable, as chisquare is by definition.

Each fit iteration will display information which can be used to evaluate the progress of the fit. (An '*' indicates that it did not find a smaller WSSR and is trying again.) The 'sum of squares of residuals', also called 'chisquare', is the WSSR between the data and your fitted function; `fit` has minimized that. At this stage, with weighted data, chisquare is expected to approach the number of degrees of freedom (data points minus parameters). The WSSR can be used to calculate the reduced chisquare (WSSR/ndf) or stdfit, the standard deviation of the fit, sqrt(WSSR/ndf). Both of these are reported for the final WSSR.

If the data are unweighted, stdfit is the rms value of the deviation of the data from the fitted function, in user units.

If you supplied valid data errors, the number of data points is large enough, and the model is correct, the reduced chisquare should be about unity. (For details, look up the 'chi-squared distribution' in your favourite statistics reference.) If so, there are additional tests, beyond the scope of this overview, for determining how well the model fits the data.

A reduced chisquare much larger than 1.0 may be due to incorrect data error estimates, data errors not normally distributed, systematic measurement errors, 'outliers', or an incorrect model function. A plot of the residuals, e.g., `plot 'datafile' using 1:($2-f($1))`, may help to show any systematic trends. Plotting both the data points and the function may help to suggest another model.

Similarly, a reduced chisquare less than 1.0 indicates WSSR is less than that expected for a random sample from the function with normally distributed errors. The data error estimates may be too large, the statistical assumptions may not be justified, or the model function may be too general, fitting fluctuations in a particular sample in addition to the underlying trends. In the latter case, a simpler function may be more appropriate.

You'll have to get used to both `fit` and the kind of problems you apply it to before you can relate the standard errors to some more practical estimates of parameter uncertainties or evaluate the significance of the correlation matrix.

Note that `fit`, in common with most NLLS implementations, minimizes the weighted sum of squared distances (y-f(x))**2. It does not provide any means to account for "errors" in the values of x, only in y. Also, any "outliers" (data points outside the normal distribution of the model) will have an exaggerated effect on the solution.


Node: fit_controlling, Next: , Previous: error_estimates, Up: fit

fit controlling

There are a number of `gnuplot` variables that can be defined to affect `fit`. Those which can be defined once `gnuplot` is running are listed under 'control_variables' while those defined before starting `gnuplot` are listed under 'environment_variables'.


Node: control_variables, Next: , Previous: fit_controlling, Up: fit_controlling

control variables

The default epsilon limit (1e-5) may be changed by declaring a value for

           FIT_LIMIT
     

When the sum of squared residuals changes between two iteration steps by a factor less than this number (epsilon), the fit is considered to have 'converged'.

The maximum number of iterations may be limited by declaring a value for

           FIT_MAXITER
     

A value of 0 (or not defining it at all) means that there is no limit.

If you need even more control about the algorithm, and know the Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm well, there are some more variables to influence it. The startup value of `lambda` is normally calculated automatically from the ML-matrix, but if you want to, you may provide your own one with

           FIT_START_LAMBDA
     

Specifying FIT_START_LAMBDA as zero or less will re-enable the automatic selection. The variable

           FIT_LAMBDA_FACTOR
     

gives the factor by which `lambda` is increased or decreased whenever the chi-squared target function increased or decreased significantly. Setting FIT_LAMBDA_FACTOR to zero re-enables the default factor of 10.0.

Other variables with the FIT_ prefix may be added to `fit`, so it is safer not to use that prefix for user-defined variables.

The variables FIT_SKIP and FIT_INDEX were used by earlier releases of `gnuplot` with a 'fit' patch called `gnufit` and are no longer available. The datafile every modifier provides the functionality of FIT_SKIP. FIT_INDEX was used for multi-branch fitting, but multi-branch fitting of one independent variable is now done as a pseudo-3D fit in which the second independent variable and using are used to specify the branch. See multi-branch.


Node: environment_variables, Previous: control_variables, Up: fit_controlling

environment variables

The environment variables must be defined before `gnuplot` is executed; how to do so depends on your operating system.

           FIT_LOG
     

changes the name (and/or path) of the file to which the fit log will be written from the default of "fit.log" in the working directory. The default value can be overwritten using the command `set fitlogfile`.

           FIT_SCRIPT
     

specifies a command that may be executed after an user interrupt. The default is replot, but a `plot` or `load` command may be useful to display a plot customized to highlight the progress of the fit.


Node: multi-branch, Next: , Previous: fit_controlling, Up: fit

multi-branch

In multi-branch fitting, multiple data sets can be simultaneously fit with functions of one independent variable having common parameters by minimizing the total WSSR. The function and parameters (branch) for each data set are selected by using a 'pseudo-variable', e.g., either the dataline number (a 'column' index of -1) or the datafile index (-2), as the second independent variable.

Example: Given two exponential decays of the form, z=f(x), each describing a different data set but having a common decay time, estimate the values of the parameters. If the datafile has the format x:z:s, then

          f(x,y) = (y==0) ? a*exp(-x/tau) : b*exp(-x/tau)
          fit f(x,y) 'datafile' using  1:-1:2:3  via a, b, tau
     
     

For a more complicated example, see the file "hexa.fnc" used by the "fit.dem" demo.

Appropriate weighting may be required since unit weights may cause one branch to predominate if there is a difference in the scale of the dependent variable. Fitting each branch separately, using the multi-branch solution as initial values, may give an indication as to the relative effect of each branch on the joint solution.


Node: starting_values, Next: , Previous: multi-branch, Up: fit

starting values

Nonlinear fitting is not guaranteed to converge to the global optimum (the solution with the smallest sum of squared residuals, SSR), and can get stuck at a local minimum. The routine has no way to determine that; it is up to you to judge whether this has happened.

`fit` may, and often will get "lost" if started far from a solution, where SSR is large and changing slowly as the parameters are varied, or it may reach a numerically unstable region (e.g., too large a number causing a floating point overflow) which results in an "undefined value" message or `gnuplot` halting.

To improve the chances of finding the global optimum, you should set the starting values at least roughly in the vicinity of the solution, e.g., within an order of magnitude, if possible. The closer your starting values are to the solution, the less chance of stopping at another minimum. One way to find starting values is to plot data and the fitting function on the same graph and change parameter values and replot until reasonable similarity is reached. The same plot is also useful to check whether the fit stopped at a minimum with a poor fit.

Of course, a reasonably good fit is not proof there is not a "better" fit (in either a statistical sense, characterized by an improved goodness-of-fit criterion, or a physical sense, with a solution more consistent with the model.) Depending on the problem, it may be desirable to `fit` with various sets of starting values, covering a reasonable range for each parameter.


Node: tips, Previous: starting_values, Up: fit

tips

Here are some tips to keep in mind to get the most out of `fit`. They're not very organized, so you'll have to read them several times until their essence has sunk in.

The two forms of the `via` argument to `fit` serve two largely distinct purposes. The `via "file"` form is best used for (possibly unattended) batch operation, where you just supply the startup values in a file and can later use update to copy the results back into another (or the same) parameter file.

The `via var1, var2, ...` form is best used interactively, where the command history mechanism may be used to edit the list of parameters to be fitted or to supply new startup values for the next try. This is particularly useful for hard problems, where a direct fit to all parameters at once won't work without good starting values. To find such, you can iterate several times, fitting only some of the parameters, until the values are close enough to the goal that the final fit to all parameters at once will work.

Make sure that there is no mutual dependency among parameters of the function you are fitting. For example, don't try to fit a*exp(x+b), because a*exp(x+b)=a*exp(b)*exp(x). Instead, fit either a*exp(x) or exp(x+b).

A technical issue: the parameters must not be too different in magnitude. The larger the ratio of the largest and the smallest absolute parameter values, the slower the fit will converge. If the ratio is close to or above the inverse of the machine floating point precision, it may take next to forever to converge, or refuse to converge at all. You will have to adapt your function to avoid this, e.g., replace 'parameter' by '1e9*parameter' in the function definition, and divide the starting value by 1e9.

If you can write your function as a linear combination of simple functions weighted by the parameters to be fitted, by all means do so. That helps a lot, because the problem is no longer nonlinear and should converge with only a small number of iterations, perhaps just one.

Some prescriptions for analysing data, given in practical experimentation courses, may have you first fit some functions to your data, perhaps in a multi-step process of accounting for several aspects of the underlying theory one by one, and then extract the information you really wanted from the fitting parameters of those functions. With `fit`, this may often be done in one step by writing the model function directly in terms of the desired parameters. Transforming data can also quite often be avoided, though sometimes at the cost of a more difficult fit problem. If you think this contradicts the previous paragraph about simplifying the fit function, you are correct.

A "singular matrix" message indicates that this implementation of the Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm can't calculate parameter values for the next iteration. Try different starting values, writing the function in another form, or a simpler function.

Finally, a nice quote from the manual of another fitting package (fudgit), that kind of summarizes all these issues: "Nonlinear fitting is an art!"


Node: help, Next: , Previous: fit, Up: Commands

help

The help command displays on-line help. To specify information on a particular topic use the syntax:

           help {<topic>}
     
     

If <topic> is not specified, a short message is printed about `gnuplot`. After help for the requested topic is given, a menu of subtopics is given; help for a subtopic may be requested by typing its name, extending the help request. After that subtopic has been printed, the request may be extended again or you may go back one level to the previous topic. Eventually, the `gnuplot` command line will return.

If a question mark (?) is given as the topic, the list of topics currently available is printed on the screen.


Node: history, Next: , Previous: help, Up: Commands

history

`history` command lists or saves previous entries in the history of the command line editing, or executes an entry.

Here you find 'usage by examples':

           history               # show the complete history
           history 5             # show last 5 entries in the history
           history quiet 5       # show last 5 entries without entry numbers
           history "hist.gp"     # write the complete history to file hist.gp
           history "hist.gp" append # append the complete history to file hist.gp
           history 10 "hist.gp"  # write last 10 commands to file hist.gp
           history 10 "|head -5 >>diary.gp" # write 5 history commands using pipe
           history ?load         # show all history entries starting with "load"
           history ?"set c"      # like above, several words enclosed in quotes
           hi !reread            # execute last entry starting with "reread"
           hist !"set xr"        # like above, several words enclosed in quotes
           hi !hi                # guess yourself :-))
     
     

On systems which support a popen function (Unix), the output of history can be piped through an external program by starting the file name with a '|', as one of the above examples demonstrates.


Node: if, Next: , Previous: history, Up: Commands

if

The if command allows commands to be executed conditionally.

Syntax:

           if (<condition>) <command-line> [; else if (<condition>) ...; else ...]
     
     

<condition> will be evaluated. If it is true (non-zero), then the command(s) of the <command-line> will be executed. If <condition> is false (zero), then the entire <command-line> is ignored until the next occurrence of `else`. Note that use of `;` to allow multiple commands on the same line will _not_ end the conditionalized commands.

Examples:

           pi=3
           if (pi!=acos(-1)) print "?Fixing pi!"; pi=acos(-1); print pi
     

will display:

           ?Fixing pi!
           3.14159265358979
     

but

           if (1==2) print "Never see this"; print "Or this either"
     

will not display anything.

else:

           v=0
           v=v+1; if (v%2) print "2" ; else if (v%3) print "3"; else print "fred"
     

(repeat the last line repeatedly!)

See reread for an example of how if and reread can be used together to perform a loop.


Node: load, Next: , Previous: if, Up: Commands

load

The `load` command executes each line of the specified input file as if it had been typed in interactively. Files created by the save command can later be `load`ed. Any text file containing valid commands can be created and then executed by the `load` command. Files being `load`ed may themselves contain `load` or call commands. See `comments` for information about comments in commands. To `load` with arguments, see call.

The `load` command _must_ be the last command on a multi-command line.

Syntax:

           load "<input-file>"
     
     

The name of the input file must be enclosed in quotes.

The special filename "-" may be used to `load` commands from standard input. This allows a `gnuplot` command file to accept some commands from standard input. Please see "help batch/interactive" for more details.

On some systems which support a popen function (Unix), the load file can be read from a pipe by starting the file name with a '<'.

Examples:

           load 'work.gnu'
           load "func.dat"
           load "< loadfile_generator.sh"
     
     

The `load` command is performed implicitly on any file names given as arguments to `gnuplot`. These are loaded in the order specified, and then `gnuplot` exits.


Node: pause, Next: , Previous: load, Up: Commands

pause

The pause command displays any text associated with the command and then waits a specified amount of time or until the carriage return is pressed. pause is especially useful in conjunction with `load` files.

Syntax:

           pause <time> {"<string>"}
           pause mouse {"<string>"}
     
     

<time> may be any constant or expression. Choosing -1 will wait until a carriage return is hit, zero (0) won't pause at all, and a positive number will wait the specified number of seconds. The time is rounded to an integer number of seconds if subsecond time resolution is not supported by the given platform. `pause 0` is synonymous with `print`.

If the current terminal supports mousing, then `pause mouse` will terminate on either a mouse click or on ctrl-C. For all other terminals, or if mousing is not active, `pause mouse` is equivalent to `pause -1`.

Note: Since pause communicates with the operating system rather than the graphics, it may behave differently with different device drivers (depending upon how text and graphics are mixed).

Examples:

           pause -1    # Wait until a carriage return is hit
           pause 3     # Wait three seconds
           pause -1  "Hit return to continue"
           pause 10  "Isn't this pretty?  It's a cubic spline."
           pause mouse "Click mouse on selected data point"
     
     


Node: plot, Next: , Previous: pause, Up: Commands

plot

`plot` is the primary command for drawing plots with `gnuplot`. It creates plots of functions and data in many, many ways. `plot` is used to draw 2-d functions and data; `splot` draws 2-d projections of 3-d surfaces and data. `plot` and `splot` contain many common features; see `splot` for differences. Note specifically that `splot`'s binary and matrix options do not exist for `plot`, and `plot`'s `axes` option does not exist for `splot`.

Syntax:

           plot {<ranges>}
                {<function> | {"<datafile>" {datafile-modifiers}}}
                {axes <axes>} {<title-spec>} {with <style>}
                {, {definitions,} <function> ...}
     
     

where either a <function> or the name of a data file enclosed in quotes is supplied. A function is a mathematical expression or a pair of mathematical expressions in parametric mode. The expressions may be defined completely or in part earlier in the stream of `gnuplot` commands (see `user-defined`).

It is also possible to define functions and parameters on the `plot` command itself. This is done merely by isolating them from other items with commas.

There are four possible sets of axes available; the keyword <axes> is used to select the axes for which a particular line should be scaled. `x1y1` refers to the axes on the bottom and left; `x2y2` to those on the top and right; `x1y2` to those on the bottom and right; and `x2y1` to those on the top and left. Ranges specified on the `plot` command apply only to the first set of axes (bottom left).

Examples:

           plot sin(x)
           plot f(x) = sin(x*a), a = .2, f(x), a = .4, f(x)
           plot [t=1:10] [-pi:pi*2] tan(t), \
                "data.1" using (tan($2)):($3/$4) smooth csplines \
                         axes x1y2 notitle with lines 5
     
     

See also `show plot`.


Node: data-file, Next: , Previous: plot, Up: plot

data-file

Discrete data contained in a file can be displayed by specifying the name of the data file (enclosed in single or double quotes) on the `plot` command line.

Syntax:

           plot '<file_name>' {index <index list>}
                                 {every <every list>}
                                 {thru <thru expression>}
                                 {using <using list>}
                                 {smooth <option>}
     
     

The modifiers index, every, thru, using, and smooth are discussed separately. In brief, index selects which data sets in a multi-data-set file are to be plotted, every specifies which points within a single data set are to be plotted, using determines how the columns within a single record are to be interpreted (thru is a special case of using), and smooth allows for simple interpolation and approximation. (`splot` has a similar syntax, but does not support the smooth and thru options.)

Data files should contain at least one data point per record (using can select one data point from the record). Records beginning with `#` (and also with `!` on VMS) will be treated as comments and ignored. Each data point represents an (x,y) pair. For `plot`s with error bars or error bars with lines (see errorbars or errorlines), each data point is (x,y,ydelta), (x,y,ylow,yhigh), (x,y,xdelta), (x,y,xlow,xhigh), or (x,y,xlow,xhigh,ylow,yhigh).

In all cases, the numbers of each record of a data file must be separated by white space (one or more blanks or tabs) unless a format specifier is provided by the using option. This white space divides each record into columns. However, whitespace inside a pair of double quotes is ignored when counting columns, so the following datafile line has three columns:

           1.0 "second column" 3.0
     
     

Data may be written in exponential format with the exponent preceded by the letter e, E, d, D, q, or Q.

Only one column (the y value) need be provided. If x is omitted, `gnuplot` provides integer values starting at 0.

In datafiles, blank records (records with no characters other than blanks and a newline and/or carriage return) are significant--pairs of blank records separate indexes (see index). Data separated by double blank records are treated as if they were in separate data files.

Single blank records designate discontinuities in a `plot`; no line will join points separated by a blank records (if they are plotted with a line style).

If autoscaling has been enabled (autoscale), the axes are automatically extended to include all datapoints, with a whole number of tic marks if tics are being drawn. This has two consequences: i) For `splot`, the corner of the surface may not coincide with the corner of the base. In this case, no vertical line is drawn. ii) When plotting data with the same x range on a dual-axis graph, the x coordinates may not coincide if the x2tics are not being drawn. This is because the x axis has been autoextended to a whole number of tics, but the x2 axis has not. The following example illustrates the problem:

           reset; plot '-', '-' axes x2y1
           1 1
           19 19
           e
           1 1
           19 19
           e
     
     

To avoid this, you can use the `fixmin`/`fixmax` feature of the autoscale command, which turns off the automatic extension of the axis range upto the next tic mark.


Node: every, Next: , Previous: data-file, Up: data-file

every

The every keyword allows a periodic sampling of a data set to be plotted.

In the discussion a "point" is a datum defined by a single record in the file; "block" here will mean the same thing as "datablock" (see `glossary`).

Syntax:

           plot 'file' every {<point_incr>}
                               {:{<block_incr>}
                                 {:{<start_point>}
                                   {:{<start_block>}
                                     {:{<end_point>}
                                       {:<end_block>}}}}}
     
     

The data points to be plotted are selected according to a loop from <`start_point`> to <`end_point`> with increment <`point_incr`> and the blocks according to a loop from <`start_block`> to <`end_block`> with increment <`block_incr`>.

The first datum in each block is numbered '0', as is the first block in the file.

Note that records containing unplottable information are counted.

Any of the numbers can be omitted; the increments default to unity, the start values to the first point or block, and the end values to the last point or block. If every is not specified, all points in all lines are plotted.

Examples:

           every :::3::3    # selects just the fourth block ('0' is first)
           every :::::9     # selects the first 10 blocks
           every 2:2        # selects every other point in every other block
           every ::5::15    # selects points 5 through 15 in each block
     
     

See simple plot demos (simple.dem) , Non-parametric splot demos , and Parametric splot demos .


Node: example_datafile, Next: , Previous: every, Up: data-file

example datafile

This example plots the data in the file "population.dat" and a theoretical curve:

           pop(x) = 103*exp((1965-x)/10)
           plot [1960:1990] 'population.dat', pop(x)
     
     

The file "population.dat" might contain:

           # Gnu population in Antarctica since 1965
              1965   103
              1970   55
              1975   34
              1980   24
              1985   10
     
     


Node: index, Next: , Previous: example_datafile, Up: data-file

index

The index keyword allows only some of the data sets in a multi-data-set file to be plotted.

Syntax:

           plot 'file' index <m>{{:<n>}:<p>}
     
     

Data sets are separated by pairs of blank records. `index <m>` selects only set <m>; `index <m>:<n>` selects sets in the range <m> to <n>; and `index <m>:<n>:<p>` selects indices <m>, <m>+<p>, <m>+2<p>, etc., but stopping at <n>. Following C indexing, the index 0 is assigned to the first data set in the file. Specifying too large an index results in an error message. If index is not specified, all sets are plotted as a single data set.

Example:

           plot 'file' index 4:5
     
     
splot with indices demo.


Node: smooth, Next: , Previous: index, Up: data-file

smooth

`gnuplot` includes a few general-purpose routines for interpolation and approximation of data; these are grouped under the smooth option. More sophisticated data processing may be performed by preprocessing the data externally or by using `fit` with an appropriate model.

Syntax:

           smooth {unique | frequency | csplines | acsplines | bezier | sbezier}
     
     

`unique` and `frequency` plot the data after making them monotonic. Each of the other routines uses the data to determine the coefficients of a continuous curve between the endpoints of the data. This curve is then plotted in the same manner as a function, that is, by finding its value at uniform intervals along the abscissa (see samples) and connecting these points with straight line segments (if a line style is chosen).

If autoscale is in effect, the ranges will be computed such that the plotted curve lies within the borders of the graph.

If autoscale is not in effect, and the smooth option is either `acspline` or `cspline`, the sampling of the generated curve is done across the intersection of the x range covered by the input data and the fixed abscissa range as defined by xrange.

If too few points are available to allow the selected option to be applied, an error message is produced. The minimum number is one for `unique` and `frequency`, four for `acsplines`, and three for the others.

The smooth options have no effect on function plots.

-- ACSPLINES --

The `acsplines` option approximates the data with a "natural smoothing spline". After the data are made monotonic in x (see `smooth unique`), a curve is piecewise constructed from segments of cubic polynomials whose coefficients are found by the weighting the data points; the weights are taken from the third column in the data file. That default can be modified by the third entry in the using list, e.g.,

           plot 'data-file' using 1:2:(1.0) smooth acsplines
     
     

Qualitatively, the absolute magnitude of the weights determines the number of segments used to construct the curve. If the weights are large, the effect of each datum is large and the curve approaches that produced by connecting consecutive points with natural cubic splines. If the weights are small, the curve is composed of fewer segments and thus is smoother; the limiting case is the single segment produced by a weighted linear least squares fit to all the data. The smoothing weight can be expressed in terms of errors as a statistical weight for a point divided by a "smoothing factor" for the curve so that (standard) errors in the file can be used as smoothing weights.

Example:

           sw(x,S)=1/(x*x*S)
           plot 'data_file' using 1:2:(sw($3,100)) smooth acsplines
     
     

-- BEZIER --

The `bezier` option approximates the data with a Bezier curve of degree n (the number of data points) that connects the endpoints.

-- CSPLINES --

The `csplines` option connects consecutive points by natural cubic splines after rendering the data monotonic (see `smooth unique`).

-- SBEZIER --

The `sbezier` option first renders the data monotonic (`unique`) and then applies the `bezier` algorithm.

-- UNIQUE --

The `unique` option makes the data monotonic in x; points with the same x-value are replaced by a single point having the average y-value. The resulting points are then connected by straight line segments. demos

-- FREQUENCY --

The `frequency` option makes the data monotonic in x; points with the same x-value are replaced by a single point having the summed y-values. The resulting points are then connected by straight line segments.


Node: special-filenames, Next: , Previous: smooth, Up: data-file

special-filenames

A special filename of `'-'` specifies that the data are inline; i.e., they follow the command. Only the data follow the command; `plot` options like filters, titles, and line styles remain on the `plot` command line. This is similar to << in unix shell script, and $DECK in VMS DCL. The data are entered as though they are being read from a file, one data point per record. The letter "e" at the start of the first column terminates data entry. The using option can be applied to these data--using it to filter them through a function might make sense, but selecting columns probably doesn't!

`'-'` is intended for situations where it is useful to have data and commands together, e.g., when `gnuplot` is run as a sub-process of some front-end application. Some of the demos, for example, might use this feature. While `plot` options such as index and every are recognized, their use forces you to enter data that won't be used. For example, while

           plot '-' index 0, '-' index 1
           2
           4
           6
     
     
           10
           12
           14
           e
           2
           4
           6
     
     
           10
           12
           14
           e
     
     

does indeed work,

           plot '-', '-'
           2
           4
           6
           e
           10
           12
           14
           e
     
     

is a lot easier to type.

If you use `'-'` with replot, you may need to enter the data more than once (see replot).

A blank filename (") specifies that the previous filename should be reused. This can be useful with things like

           plot 'a/very/long/filename' using 1:2, '' using 1:3, '' using 1:4
     
     

(If you use both `'-'` and `"` on the same `plot` command, you'll need to have two sets of inline data, as in the example above.)

On some computer systems with a popen function (Unix), the datafile can be piped through a shell command by starting the file name with a '<'. For example,

           pop(x) = 103*exp(-x/10)
           plot "< awk '{print $1-1965, $2}' population.dat", pop(x)
     
     

would plot the same information as the first population example but with years since 1965 as the x axis. If you want to execute this example, you have to delete all comments from the data file above or substitute the following command for the first part of the command above (the part up to the comma):

           plot "< awk '$0 !~ /^#/ {print $1-1965, $2}' population.dat"
     
     

While this approach is most flexible, it is possible to achieve simple filtering with the using or thru keywords.


Node: thru, Next: , Previous: special-filenames, Up: data-file

thru

The thru function is provided for backward compatibility.

Syntax:

           plot 'file' thru f(x)
     
     

It is equivalent to:

           plot 'file' using 1:(f($2))
     
     

While the latter appears more complex, it is much more flexible. The more natural

           plot 'file' thru f(y)
     
     

also works (i.e. you can use y as the dummy variable). thru is parsed for `splot` and `fit` but has no effect.


Node: using, Previous: thru, Up: data-file

using

The most common datafile modifier is using.

Syntax:

           plot 'file' using {<entry> {:<entry> {:<entry> ...}}} {'format'}
     
     

If a format is specified, each datafile record is read using the C library's 'scanf' function, with the specified format string. Otherwise the record is read and broken into columns at spaces or tabs. A format cannot be specified if time-format data is being used (this must be done by `set data time`).

The resulting array of data is then sorted into columns according to the entries. Each <entry> may be a simple column number, which selects the datum, an expression enclosed in parentheses, or empty. The expression can use $1 to access the first item read, $2 for the second item, and so on. It can also use `column(x)` and `valid(x)` where x is an arbitrary expression resulting in an integer. `column(x)` returns the x'th datum; `valid(x)` tests that the datum in the x'th column is a valid number. A column number of 0 generates a number increasing (from zero) with each point, and is reset upon encountering two blank records. A column number of -1 gives the dataline number, which starts at 0, increments at single blank records, and is reset at double blank records. A column number of -2 gives the index number, which is incremented only when two blank records are found. An empty <entry> will default to its order in the list of entries. For example, `using ::4` is interpreted as `using 1:2:4`.

N.B.--the call command also uses $'s as a special character. See call for details about how to include a column number in a call argument list.

If the using list has but a single entry, that <entry> will be used for y and the data point number is used for x; for example, "`plot 'file' using 1`" is identical to "`plot 'file' using 0:1`". If the using list has two entries, these will be used for x and y. Additional entries are usually errors in x and/or y. See style for details about plotting styles that make use of error information, and `fit` for use of error information in curve fitting.

'scanf' accepts several numerical specifications but `gnuplot` requires all inputs to be double-precision floating-point variables, so `lf` is the only permissible specifier. 'scanf' expects to see white space--a blank, tab ("\t"), newline ("\n"), or formfeed ("\f")--between numbers; anything else in the input stream must be explicitly skipped.

Note that the use of "\t", "\n", or "\f" requires use of double-quotes rather than single-quotes.

Examples:

This creates a plot of the sum of the 2nd and 3rd data against the first: The format string specifies comma- rather than space-separated columns. The same result could be achieved by specifying `set datafile separator ","`.

           plot 'file' using 1:($2+$3) '%lf,%lf,%lf'
     
     

In this example the data are read from the file "MyData" using a more complicated format:

           plot 'MyData' using "%*lf%lf%*20[^\n]%lf"
     
     

The meaning of this format is:

           %*lf        ignore a number
           %lf         read a double-precision number (x by default)
           %*20[^\n]   ignore 20 non-newline characters
           %lf         read a double-precision number (y by default)
     
     

One trick is to use the ternary `?:` operator to filter data:

           plot 'file' using 1:($3>10 ? $2 : 1/0)
     
     

which plots the datum in column two against that in column one provided the datum in column three exceeds ten. `1/0` is undefined; `gnuplot` quietly ignores undefined points, so unsuitable points are suppressed.

In fact, you can use a constant expression for the column number, provided it doesn't start with an opening parenthesis; constructs like `using 0+(complicated expression)` can be used. The crucial point is that the expression is evaluated once if it doesn't start with a left parenthesis, or once for each data point read if it does.

If timeseries data are being used, the time can span multiple columns. The starting column should be specified. Note that the spaces within the time must be included when calculating starting columns for other data. E.g., if the first element on a line is a time with an embedded space, the y value should be specified as column three.

It should be noted that `plot 'file'`, `plot 'file' using 1:2`, and `plot 'file' using ($1):($2)` can be subtly different: 1) if file has some lines with one column and some with two, the first will invent x values when they are missing, the second will quietly ignore the lines with one column, and the third will store an undefined value for lines with one point (so that in a plot with lines, no line joins points across the bad point); 2) if a line contains text at the first column, the first will abort the plot on an error, but the second and third should quietly skip the garbage.

In fact, it is often possible to plot a file with lots of lines of garbage at the top simply by specifying

           plot 'file' using 1:2
     
     

However, if you want to leave text in your data files, it is safer to put the comment character (#) in the first column of the text lines. Feeble using demos.


Node: errorbars, Next: , Previous: data-file, Up: plot

errorbars

Error bars are supported for 2-d data file plots by reading one to four additional columns (or using entries); these additional values are used in different ways by the various errorbar styles.

In the default situation, `gnuplot` expects to see three, four, or six numbers on each line of the data file--either

           (x, y, ydelta),
           (x, y, ylow, yhigh),
           (x, y, xdelta),
           (x, y, xlow, xhigh),
           (x, y, xdelta, ydelta), or
           (x, y, xlow, xhigh, ylow, yhigh).
     
     

The x coordinate must be specified. The order of the numbers must be exactly as given above, though the using qualifier can manipulate the order and provide values for missing columns. For example,

           plot 'file' with errorbars
           plot 'file' using 1:2:(sqrt($1)) with xerrorbars
           plot 'file' using 1:2:($1-$3):($1+$3):4:5 with xyerrorbars
     
     

The last example is for a file containing an unsupported combination of relative x and absolute y errors. The using entry generates absolute x min and max from the relative error.

The y error bar is a vertical line plotted from (x, ylow) to (x, yhigh). If ydelta is specified instead of ylow and yhigh, ylow = y - ydelta and yhigh = y + ydelta are derived. If there are only two numbers on the record, yhigh and ylow are both set to y. The x error bar is a horizontal line computed in the same fashion. To get lines plotted between the data points, `plot` the data file twice, once with errorbars and once with lines (but remember to use the `notitle` option on one to avoid two entries in the key). Alternately, use the errorlines command (see errorlines).

The error bars have crossbars at each end unless bars is used (see bars for details).

If autoscaling is on, the ranges will be adjusted to include the error bars. See also errorbar demos.

See using, with, and style for more information.


Node: errorlines, Next: , Previous: errorbars, Up: plot

errorlines

Lines with error bars are supported for 2-d data file plots by reading one to four additional columns (or using entries); these additional values are used in different ways by the various errorlines styles.

In the default situation, `gnuplot` expects to see three, four, or six numbers on each line of the data file--either

           (x, y, ydelta),
           (x, y, ylow, yhigh),
           (x, y, xdelta),
           (x, y, xlow, xhigh),
           (x, y, xdelta, ydelta), or
           (x, y, xlow, xhigh, ylow, yhigh).
     
     

The x coordinate must be specified. The order of the numbers must be exactly as given above, though the using qualifier can manipulate the order and provide values for missing columns. For example,

           plot 'file' with errorlines
           plot 'file' using 1:2:(sqrt($1)) with xerrorlines
           plot 'file' using 1:2:($1-$3):($1+$3):4:5 with xyerrorlines
     
     

The last example is for a file containing an unsupported combination of relative x and absolute y errors. The using entry generates absolute x min and max from the relative error.

The y error bar is a vertical line plotted from (x, ylow) to (x, yhigh). If ydelta is specified instead of ylow and yhigh, ylow = y - ydelta and yhigh = y + ydelta are derived. If there are only two numbers on the record, yhigh and ylow are both set to y. The x error bar is a horizontal line computed in the same fashion.

The error bars have crossbars at each end unless bars is used (see bars for details).

If autoscaling is on, the ranges will be adjusted to include the error bars.

See using, with, and style for more information.


Node: parametric, Next: , Previous: errorlines, Up: plot

parametric

When in parametric mode (`set parametric`) mathematical expressions must be given in pairs for `plot` and in triplets for `splot`.

Examples:

           plot sin(t),t**2
           splot cos(u)*cos(v),cos(u)*sin(v),sin(u)
     
     

Data files are plotted as before, except any preceding parametric function must be fully specified before a data file is given as a plot. In other words, the x parametric function (`sin(t)` above) and the y parametric function (`t**2` above) must not be interrupted with any modifiers or data functions; doing so will generate a syntax error stating that the parametric function is not fully specified.

Other modifiers, such as with and `title`, may be specified only after the parametric function has been completed:

           plot sin(t),t**2 title 'Parametric example' with linespoints
     
     

See also Parametric Mode Demos.


Node: ranges, Next: , Previous: parametric, Up: plot

ranges

The optional ranges specify the region of the graph that will be displayed.

Syntax:

           [{<dummy-var>=}{{<min>}:{<max>}}]
           [{{<min>}:{<max>}}]
     
     

The first form applies to the independent variable (xrange or trange, if in parametric mode). The second form applies to the dependent variable yrange (and xrange, too, if in parametric mode). <dummy-var> is a new name for the independent variable. (The defaults may be changed with dummy.) The optional <min> and <max> terms can be constant expressions or *.

In non-parametric mode, the order in which ranges must be given is xrange and yrange.

In parametric mode, the order for the `plot` command is trange, xrange, and yrange. The following `plot` command shows setting the trange to [-pi:pi], the xrange to [-1.3:1.3] and the yrange to [-1:1] for the duration of the graph:

           plot [-pi:pi] [-1.3:1.3] [-1:1] sin(t),t**2
     
     

Note that the x2range and y2range cannot be specified here--x2range and y2range must be used.

Ranges are interpreted in the order listed above for the appropriate mode. Once all those needed are specified, no further ones must be listed, but unneeded ones cannot be skipped--use an empty range `[]` as a placeholder.

`*` can be used to allow autoscaling of either of min and max. See also autoscale.

Ranges specified on the `plot` or `splot` command line affect only that graph; use the xrange, yrange, etc., commands to change the default ranges for future graphs.

With time data, you must provide the range (in the same manner as the time appears in the datafile) within quotes. `gnuplot` uses the timefmt string to read the value--see timefmt.

Examples:

This uses the current ranges:

           plot cos(x)
     
     

This sets the x range only:

           plot [-10:30] sin(pi*x)/(pi*x)
     
     

This is the same, but uses t as the dummy-variable:

           plot [t = -10 :30]  sin(pi*t)/(pi*t)
     
     

This sets both the x and y ranges:

           plot [-pi:pi] [-3:3]  tan(x), 1/x
     
     

This sets only the y range, and turns off autoscaling on both axes:

           plot [ ] [-2:sin(5)*-8] sin(x)**besj0(x)
     
     

This sets xmax and ymin only:

           plot [:200] [-pi:]  exp(sin(x))
     
     

This sets the x range for a timeseries:

           set timefmt "%d/%m/%y %H:%M"
           plot ["1/6/93 12:00":"5/6/93 12:00"] 'timedata.dat'
     
     

See also ranges demo.


Node: title, Next: , Previous: ranges, Up: plot

title

A line title for each function and data set appears in the key, accompanied by a sample of the line and/or symbol used to represent it. It can be changed by using the `title` option.

Syntax:

           title "<title>" | notitle
     
     

where <title> is the new title of the line and must be enclosed in quotes. The quotes will not be shown in the key. A special character may be given as a backslash followed by its octal value ("\345"). The tab character "\t" is understood. Note that backslash processing occurs only for strings enclosed in double quotes--use single quotes to prevent such processing. The newline character "\n" is not processed in key entries in either type of string.

The line title and sample can be omitted from the key by using the keyword `notitle`. A null title (`title "`) is equivalent to `notitle`. If only the sample is wanted, use one or more blanks (`title ' '`).

If `key autotitles` is set (which is the default) and neither `title` nor `notitle` are specified the line title is the function name or the file name as it appears on the `plot` command. If it is a file name, any datafile modifiers specified will be included in the default title.

The layout of the key itself (position, title justification, etc.) can be controlled by key. Please see key for details.

Examples:

This plots y=x with the title 'x':

           plot x
     
     

This plots x squared with title "x^2" and file "data.1" with title "measured data":

           plot x**2 title "x^2", 'data.1' t "measured data"
     
     

This puts an untitled circular border around a polar graph:

           set polar; plot my_function(t), 1 notitle
     
     


Node: with, Previous: title, Up: plot

with

Functions and data may be displayed in one of a large number of styles. The with keyword provides the means of selection.

Syntax:

           with <style> { {linestyle | ls <line_style>}
                          | {{linetype  | lt <line_type>}
                             {linewidth | lw <line_width>}
                             {pointtype | pt <point_type>}
                             {pointsize | ps <point_size>}
                             {fill | fs <fillstyle>}
                             {palette}}
                        }
     
     

where <style> is either `lines`, `points`, `linespoints`, `impulses`, `dots`, `steps`, `fsteps`, `histeps`, errorbars, `xerrorbars`, `yerrorbars`, `xyerrorbars`, errorlines, `xerrorlines`, `yerrorlines`, `xyerrorlines`, `boxes`, `filledcurves`, `boxerrorbars`, `boxxyerrorbars`, `financebars`, `candlesticks`, `vectors` or pm3d. Some of these styles require additional information. See `plotting styles` for details of each style. `fill` is relevant only to certain 2D plots (currently `boxes` `boxxyerrorbars` and `candlesticks`). Note that `filledcurves` and pm3d can take an additional option not listed above (the latter only when used in the `splot` command)--see their help or examples below for more details.

Default styles are chosen with the `set style function` and `set style data` commands.

By default, each function and data file will use a different line type and point type, up to the maximum number of available types. All terminal drivers support at least six different point types, and re-use them, in order, if more are required. The LaTeX driver supplies an additional six point types (all variants of a circle), and thus will only repeat after 12 curves are plotted with points. The PostScript drivers (postscript) supplies a total of 64.

If you wish to choose the line or point type for a single plot, <line_type> and <point_type> may be specified. These are positive integer constants (or expressions) that specify the line type and point type to be used for the plot. Use test to display the types available for your terminal.

You may also scale the line width and point size for a plot by using <line_width> and <point_size>, which are specified relative to the default values for each terminal. The pointsize may also be altered globally--see pointsize for details. But note that both <point_size> as set here and as set by pointsize multiply the default point size--their effects are not cumulative. That is, `set pointsize 2; plot x w p ps 3` will use points three times default size, not six.

If you have defined specific line type/width and point type/size combinations with `set style line`, one of these may be selected by setting <line_style> to the index of the desired style.

If gnuplot was built with pm3d support, the special keyword palette is allowed for smooth color change of lines, points and dots in `splots`. The color is chosen from a smooth palette which was set previously with the command palette. The color value corresponds to the z-value of the point coordinates or to the color coordinate if specified by the 4th parameter in using. The 2d `plot` command ignores this option.

The keywords may be abbreviated as indicated.

Note that the `linewidth`, pointsize and palette options are not supported by all terminals.

Examples:

This plots sin(x) with impulses:

           plot sin(x) with impulses
     
     

This plots x with points, x**2 with the default:

           plot x w points, x**2
     
     

This plots tan(x) with the default function style, file "data.1" with lines:

           plot [ ] [-2:5] tan(x), 'data.1' with l
     
     

This plots "leastsq.dat" with impulses:

           plot 'leastsq.dat' w i
     
     

This plots the data file "population" with boxes:

           plot 'population' with boxes
     
     

This plots "exper.dat" with errorbars and lines connecting the points (errorbars require three or four columns):

           plot 'exper.dat' w lines, 'exper.dat' notitle w errorbars
     
     

Another way to plot "exper.dat" with errorlines (errorbars require three or four columns):

           plot 'exper.dat' w errorlines
     
     

This plots sin(x) and cos(x) with linespoints, using the same line type but different point types:

           plot sin(x) with linesp lt 1 pt 3, cos(x) with linesp lt 1 pt 4
     
     

This plots file "data" with points of type 3 and twice usual size:

           plot 'data' with points pointtype 3 pointsize 2
     
     

This plots two data sets with lines differing only by weight:

           plot 'd1' t "good" w l lt 2 lw 3, 'd2' t "bad" w l lt 2 lw 1
     
     

This plots filled curve of x*x and a color stripe:

           plot x*x with filledcurve closed, 40 with filledcurve y1=10
     
     

This plots x*x and a color box:

           plot x*x, (x>=-5 && x<=5 ? 40 : 1/0) with filledcurve y1=10 lt 8
     
     

This plots a surface with color lines:

           splot x*x-y*y with line palette
     
     

This plots two color surfaces at different altitudes:

           splot x*x-y*y with pm3d, x*x+y*y with pm3d at t
     
     

See style to change the default styles. See also styles demos.


Node: print, Next: , Previous: plot, Up: Commands

print

The `print` command prints the value of <expression> to the screen. It is synonymous with `pause 0`. <expression> may be anything that `gnuplot` can evaluate that produces a number, or it can be a string.

Syntax:

           print <expression> {, <expression>, ...}
     
     

See `expressions`. The output file can be set with `set print`.


Node: pwd, Next: , Previous: print, Up: Commands

pwd

The pwd command prints the name of the working directory to the screen.


Node: quit, Next: , Previous: pwd, Up: Commands

quit

The exit and quit commands and END-OF-FILE character will exit `gnuplot`. Each of these commands will clear the output device (as does the clear command) before exiting.


Node: replot, Next: , Previous: quit, Up: Commands

replot

The replot command without arguments repeats the last `plot` or `splot` command. This can be useful for viewing a plot with different `set` options, or when generating the same plot for several devices.

Arguments specified after a replot command will be added onto the last `plot` or `splot` command (with an implied ',' separator) before it is repeated. replot accepts the same arguments as the `plot` and `splot` commands except that ranges cannot be specified. Thus you can use replot to plot a function against the second axes if the previous command was `plot` but not if it was `splot`, and similarly you can use replot to add a plot from a binary file only if the previous command was `splot`.

N.B.--use of

           plot '-' ; ... ; replot
     
     

is not recommended. `gnuplot` does not store the inline data internally, so since replot appends new information to the previous `plot` and then executes the modified command, the `'-'` from the initial `plot` will expect to read inline data again.

Note that replot does not work in multiplot mode, since it reproduces only the last plot rather than the entire screen.

See also `command-line-editing` for ways to edit the last `plot` (`splot`) command.

See also `show plot` to show the whole current plotting command, and the possibility to copy it into the `history`.


Node: reread, Next: , Previous: replot, Up: Commands

reread

The reread command causes the current `gnuplot` command file, as specified by a `load` command or on the command line, to be reset to its starting point before further commands are read from it. This essentially implements an endless loop of the commands from the beginning of the command file to the reread command. (But this is not necessarily a disaster--reread can be very useful when used in conjunction with if. See if for details.) The reread command has no effect if input from standard input.

Examples:

Suppose the file "looper" contains the commands

           a=a+1
           plot sin(x*a)
           pause -1
           if(a<5) reread
     

and from within `gnuplot` you submit the commands

           a=0
           load 'looper'
     

The result will be four plots (separated by the pause message).

Suppose the file "data" contains six columns of numbers with a total yrange from 0 to 10; the first is x and the next are five different functions of x. Suppose also that the file "plotter" contains the commands

           c_p = c_p+1
           plot "$0" using 1:c_p with lines linetype c_p
           if(c_p <  n_p) reread
     

and from within `gnuplot` you submit the commands

           n_p=6
           c_p=1
           unset key
           set yrange [0:10]
           set multiplot
           call 'plotter' 'data'
           unset multiplot
     

The result is a single graph consisting of five plots. The yrange must be set explicitly to guarantee that the five separate graphs (drawn on top of each other in multiplot mode) will have exactly the same axes. The linetype must be specified; otherwise all the plots would be drawn with the same type. See also Reread Animation Demo (animate.dem).


Node: reset, Next: , Previous: reread, Up: Commands

reset

The reset command causes all graph-related options that can be set with the `set` command to take on their default values. This command is useful, e.g., to restore the default graph settings at the end of a command file, or to return to a defined state after lots of settings have been changed within a command file. Please refer to the `set` command to see the default values that the various options take.

The following `set` commands do not change the graph status and are thus left unchanged: the terminal set with `set term`, the output file set with output and directory paths set with loadpath and fontpath.


Node: save, Next: , Previous: reset, Up: Commands

save

^ <a name="save set"></a>

The save command saves user-defined functions, variables, the `set term` status, all `set` options, or all of these, plus the last `plot` (`splot`) command to the specified file.

Syntax:

           save  {<option>} '<filename>'
     
     

where <option> is `functions`, variables, terminal or `set`. If no option is used, `gnuplot` saves functions, variables, `set` options and the last `plot` (`splot`) command. saved files are written in text format and may be read by the `load` command. For save with the `set` option or without any option, the terminal choice and the output filename are written out as a comment, to get an output file that works in other installations of gnuplot, without changes and without risk of unwillingly overwriting files. terminal will write out just the terminal status, without the comment marker in front of it. This is mainly useful for switching the terminal setting for a short while, and getting back to the previously set terminal, afterwards, by loading the saved terminal status. Note that for a single gnuplot session you may rather use the other method of saving and restoring current terminal by the commands `set term push` and `set term pop`, see `set term`.

The filename must be enclosed in quotes.

The special filename "-" may be used to save commands to standard output. On systems which support a popen function (Unix), the output of save can be piped through an external program by starting the file name with a '|'. This provides a consistent interface to `gnuplot`'s internal settings to programs which communicate with `gnuplot` through a pipe. Please see "help batch/interactive" for more details.

Examples:

           save 'work.gnu'
           save functions 'func.dat'
           save var 'var.dat'
           save set 'options.dat'
           save term 'myterm.gnu'
           save '-'
           save '|grep title >t.gp'
     
     


Node: set-show, Next: , Previous: save, Up: Commands

set-show

The `set` command can be used to set _lots_ of options. No screen is drawn, however, until a `plot`, `splot`, or replot command is given.

The `show` command shows their settings; `show all` shows all the settings.

Options changed using `set` can be returned to the default state by giving the corresponding unset command. See also the reset command, which returns all settable parameters to default values.

If a variable contains time/date data, `show` will display it according to the format currently defined by timefmt, even if that was not in effect when the variable was initially defined.


Node: angles, Next: , Previous: set-show, Up: set-show

angles

By default, `gnuplot` assumes the independent variable in polar graphs is in units of radians. If `set angles degrees` is specified before `set polar`, then the default range is [0:360] and the independent variable has units of degrees. This is particularly useful for plots of data files. The angle setting also applies to 3-d mapping as set via the mapping command.

Syntax:

           set angles {degrees | radians}
           show angles
     
     

The angle specified in `set grid polar` is also read and displayed in the units specified by angles. angles also affects the arguments of the machine-defined functions sin(x), cos(x) and tan(x), and the outputs of asin(x), acos(x), atan(x), atan2(x), and arg(x). It has no effect on the arguments of hyperbolic functions or Bessel functions. However, the output arguments of inverse hyperbolic functions of complex arguments are affected; if these functions are used, `set angles radians` must be in effect to maintain consistency between input and output arguments.

           x={1.0,0.1}
           set angles radians
           y=sinh(x)
           print y         #prints {1.16933, 0.154051}
           print asinh(y)  #prints {1.0, 0.1}
     

but

           set angles degrees
           y=sinh(x)
           print y         #prints {1.16933, 0.154051}
           print asinh(y)  #prints {57.29578, 5.729578}
     

See also poldat.dem: polar plot using angles demo.


Node: arrow, Next: , Previous: angles, Up: set-show

arrow

Arbitrary arrows can be placed on a plot using the arrow command.

Syntax:

           set arrow {<tag>} {from <position>} {to|rto <position>}
                     { {arrowstyle | as <arrow_style>}
                       | {nohead | head | heads}
                         {size <length>,<angle>}
                         {filled | nofilled}
                         {front | back}
                         { {linestyle | ls <line_style>}
                           | {linetype | lt <line_type>}
                             {linewidth | lw <line_width} } }
           unset arrow {<tag>}
           show arrow {<tag>}
     
     

<tag> is an integer that identifies the arrow. If no tag is given, the lowest unused tag value is assigned automatically. The tag can be used to delete or change a specific arrow. To change any attribute of an existing arrow, use the arrow command with the appropriate tag and specify the parts of the arrow to be changed.

The <position>s are specified by either x,y or x,y,z, and may be preceded by `first`, `second`, `graph`, or `screen` to select the coordinate system. Unspecified coordinates default to 0. The endpoints can be specified in one of four coordinate systems--`first` or `second` axes, `graph` or `screen`. See `coordinates` for details. A coordinate system specifier does not carry over from the "from" position to the "to" position. Arrows outside the screen boundaries are permitted but may cause device errors. If the endpoint is specified by "rto" instead of "to" it is drawn relatively to the start point.

Specifying `nohead` produces an arrow drawn without a head--a line segment. This gives you yet another way to draw a line segment on the plot. By default, arrows have heads. Specifying `heads` draws arrow heads on both ends of the line.

Head size can be controlled by `size <length>,<angle>`, where <length> defines length of each branch of the arrow head and <angle> the angle (in degrees) they make with the arrow. <Length> is in x-axis units; this can be changed by `first`, `second`, `graph` or `screen` before the <length>; see `coordinates` for details.

Specifying `filled` produces filled arrow heads (if heads are used). Filling is supported on filled-polygon capable terminals, see help of pm3d for their list, otherwise the arrow heads are closed but not filled. Further, filling is obviously not supported on terminals drawing arrows by their own specific routines, like `fig`, `metafont`, `metapost`, `latex` or `tgif`.

The line style may be selected from a user-defined list of line styles (see `set style line`) or may be defined here by providing values for <line_type> (an index from the default list of styles) and/or <line_width> (which is a multiplier for the default width).

Note, however, that if a user-defined line style has been selected, its properties (type and width) cannot be altered merely by issuing another arrow command with the appropriate index and `lt` or `lw`.

If `front` is given, the arrow is written on top of the graphed data. If `back` is given (the default), the arrow is written underneath the graphed data. Using `front` will prevent an arrow from being obscured by dense data.

Examples:

To set an arrow pointing from the origin to (1,2) with user-defined style 5, use:

           set arrow to 1,2 ls 5
     
     

To set an arrow from bottom left of plotting area to (-5,5,3), and tag the arrow number 3, use:

           set arrow 3 from graph 0,0 to -5,5,3
     
     

To change the preceding arrow to end at 1,1,1, without an arrow head and double its width, use:

           set arrow 3 to 1,1,1 nohead lw 2
     
     

To draw a vertical line from the bottom to the top of the graph at x=3, use:

           set arrow from 3, graph 0 to 3, graph 1 nohead
     
     

To draw a vertical arrow with T-shape ends, use:

           set arrow 3 from 0,-5 to 0,5 heads size screen 0.1,90
     
     

To draw an arrow relatively to the start point, where the relative distances are given in graph coordinates, use:

           set arrow from 0,-5 rto graph 0.1,0.1
     
     

To delete arrow number 2, use:

           unset arrow 2
     
     

To delete all arrows, use:

           unset arrow
     
     

To show all arrows (in tag order), use:

           show arrow
     

See also arrows demos.


Node: autoscale, Next: , Previous: arrow, Up: set-show

autoscale

Autoscaling may be set individually on the x, y or z axis or globally on all axes. The default is to autoscale all axes.

Syntax:

           set autoscale {<axes>{|min|max|fixmin|fixmax|fix} | fix | keepfix}
           unset autoscale {<axes>}
           show autoscale
     
     

where <axes> is either `x`, `y`, `z`, `cb`, `x2`, `y2` or `xy`. A keyword with `min` or `max` appended (this cannot be done with `xy`) tells `gnuplot` to autoscale just the minimum or maximum of that axis. If no keyword is given, all axes are autoscaled.

A keyword with `fixmin`, `fixmax` or `fix` appended tells gnuplot to disable extension of the axis range to the next tic mark position, for autoscaled axes using equidistant tics; `set autoscale fix` sets this for all axes. Command `set autoscale keepfix` autoscales all axes while keeping the fix settings.

When autoscaling, the axis range is automatically computed and the dependent axis (y for a `plot` and z for `splot`) is scaled to include the range of the function or data being plotted.

If autoscaling of the dependent axis (y or z) is not set, the current y or z range is used.

Autoscaling the independent variables (x for `plot` and x,y for `splot`) is a request to set the domain to match any data file being plotted. If there are no data files, autoscaling an independent variable has no effect. In other words, in the absence of a data file, functions alone do not affect the x range (or the y range if plotting z = f(x,y)).

Please see xrange for additional information about ranges.

The behavior of autoscaling remains consistent in parametric mode, (see `set parametric`). However, there are more dependent variables and hence more control over x, y, and z axis scales. In parametric mode, the independent or dummy variable is t for `plot`s and u,v for `splot`s. autoscale in parametric mode, then, controls all ranges (t, u, v, x, y, and z) and allows x, y, and z to be fully autoscaled.

Autoscaling works the same way for polar mode as it does for parametric mode for `plot`, with the extension that in polar mode dummy can be used to change the independent variable from t (see dummy).

When tics are displayed on second axes but no plot has been specified for those axes, x2range and y2range are inherited from xrange and yrange. This is done _before_ xrange and yrange are autoextended to a whole number of tics, which can cause unexpected results. You can use the `fixmin` or `fixmax` options to avoid this.

Examples:

This sets autoscaling of the y axis (other axes are not affected):

           set autoscale y
     
     

This sets autoscaling only for the minimum of the y axis (the maximum of the y axis and the other axes are not affected):

           set autoscale ymin
     
     

This disables extension of the x2 axis tics to the next tic mark, thus keeping the exact range as found in the plotted data and functions:

           set autoscale x2fixmin
           set autoscale x2fixmax
     
     

This sets autoscaling of the x and y axes:

           set autoscale xy
     
     

This sets autoscaling of the x, y, z, x2 and y2 axes:

           set autoscale
     
     

This disables autoscaling of the x, y, z, x2 and y2 axes:

           unset autoscale
     
     

This disables autoscaling of the z axis only:

           unset autoscale z
     
     


Node: parametric_mode, Next: , Previous: autoscale, Up: autoscale

parametric mode

When in parametric mode (`set parametric`), the xrange is as fully scalable as the y range. In other words, in parametric mode the x axis can be automatically scaled to fit the range of the parametric function that is being plotted. Of course, the y axis can also be automatically scaled just as in the non-parametric case. If autoscaling on the x axis is not set, the current x range is used.

Data files are plotted the same in parametric and non-parametric mode. However, there is a difference in mixed function and data plots: in non-parametric mode with autoscaled x, the x range of the datafile controls the x range of the functions; in parametric mode it has no influence.

For completeness a last command `set autoscale t` is accepted. However, the effect of this "scaling" is very minor. When `gnuplot` determines that the t range would be empty, it makes a small adjustment if autoscaling is true. Otherwise, `gnuplot` gives an error. Such behavior may, in fact, not be very useful and the command `set autoscale t` is certainly questionable.

`splot` extends the above ideas as you would expect. If autoscaling is set, then x, y, and z ranges are computed and each axis scaled to fit the resulting data.


Node: polar_mode, Previous: parametric_mode, Up: autoscale

polar mode

When in polar mode (`set polar`), the xrange and the yrange are both found from the polar coordinates, and thus they can both be automatically scaled. In other words, in polar mode both the x and y axes can be automatically scaled to fit the ranges of the polar function that is being plotted.

When plotting functions in polar mode, the rrange may be autoscaled. When plotting data files in polar mode, the trange may also be autoscaled. Note that if the trange is contained within one quadrant, autoscaling will produce a polar plot of only that single quadrant.

Explicitly setting one or two ranges but not others may lead to unexpected results. See also polar demos.


Node: bars, Next: , Previous: autoscale, Up: set-show

bars

The bars command controls the tics at the ends of error bars, and also the width of the boxes in plot styles candlesticks and financebars.

Syntax:

           set bars {small | large | <size>}
           unset bars
           show bars
     
     

`small` is a synonym for 0.0, and `large` for 1.0. The default is 1.0 if no size is given.


Node: bmargin, Next: , Previous: bars, Up: set-show

bmargin

The command bmargin sets the size of the bottom margin. Please see margin for details.


Node: border, Next: , Previous: bmargin, Up: set-show

border

The border and border commands control the display of the graph borders for the `plot` and `splot` commands. Note that the borders do not necessarily coincide with the axes; with `plot` they often do, but with `splot` they usually do not.

Syntax:

           set border {<integer> { {linestyle | ls <line_style>}
                                   | {linetype | lt <line_type> }
                                     {linewidth | lw <line_width>} } }
           unset border
           show border
     
     

With a `splot` displayed in an arbitrary orientation, like `set view 56,103`, the four corners of the x-y plane can be referred to as "front", "back", "left" and "right". A similar set of four corners exist for the top surface, of course. Thus the border connecting, say, the back and right corners of the x-y plane is the "bottom right back" border, and the border connecting the top and bottom front corners is the "front vertical". (This nomenclature is defined solely to allow the reader to figure out the table that follows.)

The borders are encoded in a 12-bit integer: the bottom four bits control the border for `plot` and the sides of the base for `splot`; the next four bits control the verticals in `splot`; the top four bits control the edges on top of the `splot`. In detail, `<integer>` should be the sum of the appropriate entries from the following table:

                 Bit     plot        splot
                   1   bottom      bottom left front
                   2   left        bottom left back
                   4   top         bottom right front
                   8   right       bottom right back
                  16   no effect   left vertical
                  32   no effect   back vertical
                  64   no effect   right vertical
                 128   no effect   front vertical
                 256   no effect   top left back
                 512   no effect   top right back
                1024   no effect   top left front
                2048   no effect   top right front
     
     

Various bits or combinations of bits may be added together in the command.

The default is 31, which is all four sides for `plot`, and base and z axis for `splot`.

Using the optional <line_style>, <line_type> and <line_width> specifiers, the way the border lines are drawn can be influenced (limited by what the current terminal driver supports).

For `plot`, tics may be drawn on edges other than bottom and left by enabling the second axes - see xtics for details.

If a `splot` draws only on the base, as is the case with "`unset surface; set contour base`", then the verticals and the top are not drawn even if they are specified.

The `set grid` options 'back', 'front' and 'layerdefault' also control the order in which the border lines are drawn with respect to the output of the plotted data.

Examples:

Draw default borders:

           set border
     
     

Draw only the left and bottom (`plot`) or both front and back bottom left (`splot`) borders:

           set border 3
     
     

Draw a complete box around a `splot`:

           set border 4095
     
     

Draw a topless box around a `splot`, omitting the front vertical:

           set border 127+256+512 # or set border 1023-128
     
     

Draw only the top and right borders for a `plot` and label them as axes:

           unset xtics; unset ytics; set x2tics; set y2tics; set border 12
     
     

See also borders demo.


Node: boxwidth, Next: , Previous: border, Up: set-show

boxwidth

The boxwidth command is used to set the default width of boxes in the `boxes`, `boxerrorbars` and `candlesticks` styles.

Syntax:

           set boxwidth {<width>} {absolute|relative}
           show boxwidth
     
     

If a data file is plotted without the width being specified in the third, fourth, or fifth column (or using entry), or if a function is plotted, the width of each box is set by the boxwidth command. (If a width is given both in the file and by the boxwidth command, the one in the file is used.) If the width is not specified in one of these ways, the width of each box will be calculated automatically so that it touches the adjacent boxes. `relative` indicates, that the specified boxwidth is a scaling factor for the automatically calculated boxwidth, otherwise the boxwidth is taken as an `absolute` value (which is the default). In a four-column data set, the fourth column will be interpreted as the box width unless the width is set to -2.0, in which case the width will be calculated automatically. See `set style boxerrorbars` for more details.

To set the box width to automatic use the command

           set boxwidth
     
     

or, for four-column data,

           set boxwidth -2
     
     

The same effect can be achieved with the using keyword in `plot`:

           plot 'file' using 1:2:3:4:(-2)
     
     

To set the box width to half of the automatic size use

           set boxwidth 0.5 relative
     
     

To set the box width to an absolute value of 2 use

           set boxwidth 2 absolute
     
     

or, if you didn't specify a relative boxwidth before,

           set boxwidth 2
     
     


Node: clabel, Next: , Previous: boxwidth, Up: set-show

clabel

`gnuplot` will vary the linetype used for each contour level when clabel is set. When this option on (the default), a legend labels each linestyle with the z level it represents. It is not possible at present to separate the contour labels from the surface key.

Syntax:

           set clabel {'<format>'}
           unset clabel
           show clabel
     
     

The default for the format string is %8.3g, which gives three decimal places. This may produce poor label alignment if the key is altered from its default configuration.

The first contour linetype, or only contour linetype when clabel is off, is the surface linetype +1; contour points are the same style as surface points.

See also contour.


Node: clip, Next: , Previous: clabel, Up: set-show

clip

`gnuplot` can clip data points and lines that are near the boundaries of a graph.

Syntax:

           set clip <clip-type>
           unset clip <clip-type>
           show clip
     
     

Three clip types for points and lines are supported by `gnuplot`: `points`, `one`, and `two`. One, two, or all three clip types may be active for a single graph. Note that clipping of color filled quadrangles drawn by pm3d maps and surfaces is not controlled by this command, but by `set pm3d clip1in` and `set pm3d clip4in`.

The `points` clip type forces `gnuplot` to clip (actually, not plot at all) data points that fall within but too close to the boundaries. This is done so that large symbols used for points will not extend outside the boundary lines. Without clipping points near the boundaries, the plot may look bad. Adjusting the x and y ranges may give similar results.

Setting the `one` clip type causes `gnuplot` to draw a line segment which has only one of its two endpoints within the graph. Only the in-range portion of the line is drawn. The alternative is to not draw any portion of the line segment.

Some lines may have both endpoints out of range, but pass through the graph. Setting the `two` clip-type allows the visible portion of these lines to be drawn.

In no case is a line drawn outside the graph.

The defaults are `noclip points`, `clip one`, and `noclip two`.

To check the state of all forms of clipping, use

           show clip
     
     

For backward compatibility with older versions, the following forms are also permitted:

           set clip
           unset clip
     
     
clip is synonymous with `set clip points`; clip turns off all three types of clipping.


Node: cntrparam, Next: , Previous: clip, Up: set-show

cntrparam

cntrparam controls the generation of contours and their smoothness for a contour plot. contour displays current settings of cntrparam as well as contour.

Syntax:

           set cntrparam { { linear
                           | cubicspline
                           | bspline
                           | points <n>
                           | order <n>
                           | levels { auto {<n>} | <n>
                                      | discrete <z1> {,<z2>{,<z3>...}}
                                      | incremental <start>, <incr> {,<end>}
                                    }
                           }
                         }
           show contour
     
     

This command has two functions. First, it sets the values of z for which contour points are to be determined (by linear interpolation between data points or function isosamples.) Second, it controls the way contours are drawn between the points determined to be of equal z. <n> should be an integral constant expression and <z1>, <z2> ... any constant expressions. The parameters are:

`linear`, `cubicspline`, `bspline`--Controls type of approximation or interpolation. If `linear`, then straight line segments connect points of equal z magnitude. If `cubicspline`, then piecewise-linear contours are interpolated between the same equal z points to form somewhat smoother contours, but which may undulate. If `bspline`, a guaranteed-smoother curve is drawn, which only approximates the position of the points of equal-z.

`points`--Eventually all drawings are done with piecewise-linear strokes. This number controls the number of line segments used to approximate the `bspline` or `cubicspline` curve. Number of cubicspline or bspline segments (strokes) = `points` * number of linear segments.

`order`--Order of the bspline approximation to be used. The bigger this order is, the smoother the resulting contour. (Of course, higher order bspline curves will move further away from the original piecewise linear data.) This option is relevant for `bspline` mode only. Allowed values are integers in the range from 2 (linear) to 10.

`levels`-- Selection of contour levels, controlled by `auto` (default), `discrete`, `incremental`, and <n>, number of contour levels, limited to

      MAX_DISCRETE_LEVELS as defined in plot.h (30 is standard.)
     
     

For `auto`, <n> specifies a nominal number of levels; the actual number will be adjusted to give simple labels. If the surface is bounded by zmin and zmax, contours will be generated at integer multiples of dz between zmin and zmax, where dz is 1, 2, or 5 times some power of ten (like the step between two tic marks).

For `levels discrete`, contours will be generated at z = <z1>, <z2> ... as specified; the number of discrete levels sets the number of contour levels. In `discrete` mode, any `set cntrparam levels <n>` are ignored.

For `incremental`, contours are generated at values of z beginning at <start> and increasing by <increment>, until the number of contours is reached. <end> is used to determine the number of contour levels, which will be changed by any subsequent `set cntrparam levels <n>`.

If the command cntrparam is given without any arguments specified, the defaults are used: linear, 5 points, order 4, 5 auto levels.

Examples:

           set cntrparam bspline
           set cntrparam points 7
           set cntrparam order 10
     
     

To select levels automatically, 5 if the level increment criteria are met:

           set cntrparam levels auto 5
     
     

To specify discrete levels at .1, .37, and .9:

           set cntrparam levels discrete .1,1/exp(1),.9
     
     

To specify levels from 0 to 4 with increment 1:

           set cntrparam levels incremental  0,1,4
     
     

To set the number of levels to 10 (changing an incremental end or possibly the number of auto levels):

           set cntrparam levels 10
     
     

To set the start and increment while retaining the number of levels:

           set cntrparam levels incremental 100,50
     
     

See also contour for control of where the contours are drawn, and clabel for control of the format of the contour labels and linetypes.

See also contours demo (contours.dem) and contours with user defined levels demo (discrete.dem).


Node: color_box, Next: , Previous: cntrparam, Up: set-show

color box

The color scheme, i.e. the gradient of the smooth color with min_z and max_z values of pm3d's palette, is drawn in a color box unless `unset colorbox`.

           set colorbox
           set colorbox {
                      { vertical | horizontal }
                      { default | user }
                      { origin x, y }
                      { size x, y }
                      { noborder | bdefault | border [line style] }
                    }
           show colorbox
           unset colorbox
     
     

Colorbox position can be `default` or `user`. If the latter is specified the values as given with the origin and size subcommands are used.

`vertical` and `horizontal` switches the orientation of the color gradient.

`origin x, y` and `size x, y` are used only in combination with the `user` option. The x and y values must be given in screen coordinates (as everything else did not seem to make sense) that is between [0 - 1]. Try for example:

         set colorbox horiz user origin .1,.02 size .8,.04
     

which will draw a horizontal gradient somewhere at the bottom of the graph. border turns the border on (this is the default). `noborder` turns the border off. If an positive integer argument is given after border, it is used as a line style tag which is used for drawing the border, e.g.:

         set style line 2604 linetype -1 linewidth .4
         set colorbox border 2604
     

will use line style `2604`, a thin line with the default border color (-1) for drawing the border. `bdefault` (which is the default) will use the default border line style for drawing the border of the color box.

The axis of the color box is called `cb` and it is controlled by means of the usual axes commands, i.e. `set/unset/show` with cbrange, `[m]cbtics`, `format cb`, `grid [m]cb`, cblabel, and perhaps even cbdata, `[no]cbdtics`, `[no]cbmtics`.

`set colorbox` without any parameter switches the position to default. `unset colorbox` resets the default parameters for the colorbox and switches the colorbox off.

See also help for pm3d, palette, pm3d, and `set style line`.


Node: contour, Next: , Previous: color_box, Up: set-show

contour

contour enables contour drawing for surfaces. This option is available for `splot` only.

Syntax:

           set contour {base | surface | both}
           unset contour
           show contour
     
     

The three options specify where to draw the contours: `base` draws the contours on the grid base where the x/ytics are placed, surface draws the contours on the surfaces themselves, and `both` draws the contours on both the base and the surface. If no option is provided, the default is `base`.

See also cntrparam for the parameters that affect the drawing of contours, and clabel for control of labelling of the contours.

The surface can be switched off (see surface), giving a contour-only graph. Though it is possible to use size to enlarge the plot to fill the screen, more control over the output format can be obtained by writing the contour information to a file, and rereading it as a 2-d datafile plot:

           unset surface
           set contour
           set cntrparam ...
           set term table
           set out 'filename'
           splot ...
           set out
           # contour info now in filename
           set term <whatever>
           plot 'filename'
     
     

In order to draw contours, the data should be organized as "grid data". In such a file all the points for a single y-isoline are listed, then all the points for the next y-isoline, and so on. A single blank line (a line containing no characters other than blank spaces and a carriage return and/or a line feed) separates one y-isoline from the next. See also `splot datafile`.

If contours are desired from non-grid data, dgrid3d can be used to create an appropriate grid. See dgrid3d for more information. See also contours demo (contours.dem) and contours with user defined levels demo (discrete.dem).


Node: data_style, Next: , Previous: contour, Up: set-show

data style

This form of the command is deprecated. Please see `set style data`.


Node: datafile_, Next: , Previous: data_style, Up: set-show

datafile

The `set datafile` command options control interpretation of fields read from input data files by the `plot`, `splot`, and `fit` commands. Three such options are currently implemented.


Node: set_datafile_missing, Next: , Previous: datafile_, Up: datafile_

set datafile missing

The `set datafile missing` command allows you to tell `gnuplot` what character string is used in a data file to denote missing data. Exactly how this missing value will be treated depends on the using specifier of the `plot` or `splot` command.

Syntax:

           set datafile missing {"<string>"}
           show datafile missing
           unset datafile
     
     

Example:

           # Ignore entries containing IEEE NaN ("Not a Number") code
           set datafile missing "NaN"
     
     

Example:

           set datafile missing "?"
           set style data lines
           plot '-'
              1 10
              2 20
              3 ?
              4 40
              5 50
              e
           plot '-' using 1:2
              1 10
              2 20
              3 ?
              4 40
              5 50
              e
           plot '-' using 1:($2)
              1 10
              2 20
              3 ?
              4 40
              5 50
              e
     
     

The first `plot` will recognize only the first datum in the "3 ?" line. It will use the single-datum-on-a-line convention that the line number is "x" and the datum is "y", so the point will be plotted (in this case erroneously) at (2,3).

The second `plot` will correctly ignore the middle line. The plotted line will connect the points at (2,20) and (4,40).

The third `plot` will also correctly ignore the middle line, but the plotted line will not connect the points at (2,20) and (4,40).

There is no default character for `missing`, but in many cases any non-parsible string of characters found where a numerical value is expected will be treated as missing data.


Node: set_datafile_separator, Next: , Previous: set_datafile_missing, Up: datafile_

set datafile separator

The command `set datafile separator "<char>"` tells `gnuplot` that data fields in subsequent input files are separated by <char> rather than by whitespace. The most common use is to read in csv (comma-separated value) files written by spreadsheet or database programs. By default data fields are separated by whitespace.

Syntax:

           set datafile separator {"<char>" | whitespace}
     
     

Examples:

           # Input file contains tab-separated fields
           set datafile separator "\t"
     
     
           # Input file contains comma-separated values fields
           set datafile separator ","
     
     


Node: set_datafile_commentschars, Previous: set_datafile_separator, Up: datafile_

set datafile commentschars

The `set datafile commentschars` command allows you to tell `gnuplot` what characters are used in a data file to denote comments. Gnuplot will ignore rest of the line behind the specified characters if either of them is the first non-blank character on the line.

Syntax:

           set datafile commentschars {"<string>"}
           show datafile commentschars
           unset commentschars
     
     

Default value of the string is "#!" on VMS and "#" otherwise.

Then, the following line in a data file is completely ignored

         # 1 2 3 4
     

but the following

         1 # 3 4
     

produces rather unexpected plot unless

         set datafile missing '#'
     

is specified as well.

Example:

           set datafile commentschars "#!%"
     
     


Node: decimalsign, Next: , Previous: datafile_, Up: set-show

decimalsign

The decimalsign command selects a decimal sign for numbers printed into tic labels or label strings.

Syntax:

           set decimalsign {<value>}
           unset decimalsign
           show decimalsign
     
     

The argument <value> is the string to be used in place of the usual decimal point. Typical choices include the period, '.', and the comma, ',', but others may be useful, too. If you omit the <value> argument, the decimal separator is not modified from the usual default, which is a period. Unsetting decimalsign has the same effect as omitting <value>.

Example:

Correct typesetting in most European countries requires:

           set decimalsign ','
     
     


Node: dgrid3d, Next: , Previous: decimalsign, Up: set-show

dgrid3d

The dgrid3d command enables, and can set parameters for, non-grid to grid data mapping.

Syntax:

           set dgrid3d {<row_size>} {,{<col_size>} {,<norm>}}
           unset dgrid3d
           show dgrid3d
     
     

By default dgrid3d is disabled. When enabled, 3-d data read from a file are always treated as a scattered data set. A grid with dimensions derived from a bounding box of the scattered data and size as specified by the row/col_size parameters is created for plotting and contouring. The grid is equally spaced in x (rows) and in y (columns); the z values are computed as weighted averages of the scattered points' z values.

The third parameter, norm, controls the weighting: Each data point is weighted inversely by its distance from the grid point raised to the norm power. (Actually, the weights are given by the inverse of dx^norm + dy^norm, where dx and dy are the components of the separation of the grid point from each data point. For some norms that are powers of two, specifically 4, 8, and 16, the computation is optimized by using the Euclidean distance in the weight calculation, (dx^2+dy^2)^norm/2. However, any non-negative integer can be used.)

The closer the data point is to a grid point, the more effect it has on that grid point and the larger the value of norm the less effect more distant data points have on that grid point.

The dgrid3d option is a simple low pass filter that converts scattered data to a grid data set. More sophisticated approaches to this problem exist and should be used to preprocess the data outside `gnuplot` if this simple solution is found inadequate.

(The z values are found by weighting all data points, not by interpolating between nearby data points; also edge effects may produce unexpected and/or undesired results. In some cases, small norm values produce a grid point reflecting the average of distant data points rather than a local average, while large values of norm may produce "steps" with several grid points having the same value as the closest data point, rather than making a smooth transition between adjacent data points. Some areas of a grid may be filled by extrapolation, to an arbitrary boundary condition. The variables are not normalized; consequently the units used for x and y will affect the relative weights of points in the x and y directions.)

Examples:

           set dgrid3d 10,10,1     # defaults
           set dgrid3d ,,4
     
     

The first specifies that a grid of size 10 by 10 is to be constructed using a norm value of 1 in the weight computation. The second only modifies the norm, changing it to 4. See also scatter.dem: dgrid3d demo.


Node: dummy, Next: , Previous: dgrid3d, Up: set-show

dummy

The dummy command changes the default dummy variable names.

Syntax:

           set dummy {<dummy-var>} {,<dummy-var>}
           show dummy
     
     

By default, `gnuplot` assumes that the independent, or "dummy", variable for the `plot` command is "t" if in parametric or polar mode, or "x" otherwise. Similarly the independent variables for the `splot` command are "u" and "v" in parametric mode (`splot` cannot be used in polar mode), or "x" and "y" otherwise.

It may be more convenient to call a dummy variable by a more physically meaningful or conventional name. For example, when plotting time functions:

           set dummy t
           plot sin(t), cos(t)
     
     

At least one dummy variable must be set on the command; dummy by itself will generate an error message.

Examples:

           set dummy u,v
           set dummy ,s
     
     

The second example sets the second variable to s.


Node: encoding, Next: , Previous: dummy, Up: set-show

encoding

The encoding command selects a character encoding. Syntax:

           set encoding {<value>}
           show encoding
     
     

Valid values are

        default     - tells a terminal to use its default encoding
        iso_8859_1  - the most common Western European font used by many
                      Unix workstations and by MS-Windows. This encoding is
                      known in the PostScript world as 'ISO-Latin1'.
        iso_8859_2  - used in Central and Eastern Europe
        iso_8859_15 - a variant of iso_8859_1 that includes the Euro symbol
        cp850       - codepage for OS/2
        cp852       - codepage for OS/2
        cp437       - codepage for MS-DOS
        koi8r       - popular Unix cyrillic encoding
     
     

Generally you must set the encoding before setting the terminal type. Note that encoding is not supported by all terminal drivers and that the device must be able to produce the desired non-standard characters. The PostScript and X11 terminals support all encodings. OS/2 Presentation Manager switches automatically to codepage 912 for `iso_8859_2`.


Node: fit_, Next: , Previous: encoding, Up: set-show

fit

The `fit` setting defines where the `fit` command writes its output. If this option was built into your version of gnuplot, it also controls whether parameter errors from the fit will be written into variables.

Syntax:

           set fit {logfile {"<filename>"}} {{no}errorvariables}
           unset fit
           show fit
     
     

The <filename> argument must be enclosed in single or double quotes.

If no filename is given or `unset fit` is used the log file is reset to its default value "fit.log" or the value of the environmental variable `FIT_LOG`.

Users of DOS-like platforms should note that the \ character has special significance in double-quoted strings, so single-quotes should be used for filenames in different directories, or you have to write \\ for each \. Or you can just use forward slashes, even though this is DOS.

If the given logfile name ends with a / or \, it is interpreted to be a directory name, and the actual filename will be "fit.log" in that directory.

If the `errorvariables` option is turned on, the error of each fitted parameter computed by `fit` will be copied to a user-defined variable whose name is formed by appending "_err" to the name of the parameter itself. This is useful mainly to put the parameter and its error onto a plot of the data and the fitted function, for reference, as in:

            set fit errorvariables
            fit f(x) 'datafile' using 1:2 via a, b
            print "error of a is:", a_err
            set label 'a=%6.2f', a, '+/- %6.2f', a_err
            plot 'datafile' using 1:2, f(x)
     
     


Node: fontpath, Next: , Previous: fit_, Up: set-show

fontpath

The fontpath setting defines additional locations for font files searched when including font files. Currently only the postscript terminal supports fontpath. If a file cannot be found in the current directory, the directories in fontpath are tried. Further documentation concerning the supported file formats is included in the postscript section of the documentation.

Syntax:

           set fontpath {"pathlist1" {"pathlist2"...}}
           show fontpath
     
     

Path names may be entered as single directory names, or as a list of path names separated by a platform-specific path separator, eg. colon (':') on Unix, semicolon (';') on DOS/Windows/OS/2/Amiga platforms. The fontpath, save and `save set` commands replace the platform-specific separator with a space character (' ') for maximum portability. If a directory name ends with an exclamation mark ('!') also the subdirectories of this directory are searched for font files.

If the environmental variable GNUPLOT_FONTPATH is set, its contents are appended to fontpath. If it is not set, a system dependent default value is used. It is set by testing several directories for existence when using the fontpath the first time. Thus, the first call of fontpath, fontpath, fontpath, `plot`, or `splot` with embedded font files takes a little more time. If you want to save this time you may set the environmental variable GNUPLOT_FONTPATH since probing is switched off, then. You can find out which is the default fontpath by using fontpath.

However, fontpath prints the contents of user defined fontpath and system fontpath separately. Also, the save and `save set` commands save only the user specified parts of fontpath, for portability reasons.

Many other terminal drivers access TrueType fonts via the gd library. For these drivers the font search path is controlled by the environmental variable GDFONTPATH.


Node: format, Next: , Previous: fontpath, Up: set-show

format

The format of the tic-mark labels can be set with the `set format` command.

Syntax:

           set format {<axes>} {"<format-string>"}
           set format {<axes>} {'<format-string>'}
           show format
     
     

where <axes> is either `x`, `y`, `z`, `cb`, `xy`, `x2`, `y2` or nothing (which is the same as `xy`). The length of the string representing a tic mark (after formatting with 'printf') is restricted to 100 characters. If the format string is omitted, the format will be returned to the default "%g". For LaTeX users, the format "$%g$" is often desirable. If the empty string "" is used, no label will be plotted with each tic, though the tic mark will still be plotted. To eliminate all tic marks, use xtics or ytics.

Newline (\n) is accepted in the format string. Use double-quotes rather than single-quotes to enable such interpretation. See also `syntax`.

The default format for both axes is "%g", but other formats such as "%.2f" or "%3.0em" are often desirable. Anything accepted by 'printf' when given a double precision number, and accepted by the terminal, will work. Some other options have been added. If the format string looks like a floating point format, then `gnuplot` tries to construct a reasonable format.

Characters not preceded by "%" are printed verbatim. Thus you can include spaces and labels in your format string, such as "%g m", which will put " m" after each number. If you want "%" itself, double it: "%g %%".

See also xtics for more information about tic labels, and decimalsign for how to use non-default decimal separators in numbers printed this way. See also electron demo (electron.dem).


Node: format_specifiers, Next: , Previous: format, Up: format

format specifiers

The acceptable formats (if not in time/date mode) are:

           Format       Explanation
           %f           floating point notation
           %e or %E     exponential notation; an "e" or "E" before the power
           %g or %G     the shorter of %e (or %E) and %f
           %x or %X     hex
           %o or %O     octal
           %t           mantissa to base 10
           %l           mantissa to base of current logscale
           %s           mantissa to base of current logscale; scientific power
           %T           power to base 10
           %L           power to base of current logscale
           %S           scientific power
           %c           character replacement for scientific power
           %P           multiple of pi
     
     

A 'scientific' power is one such that the exponent is a multiple of three. Character replacement of scientific powers (`"%c"`) has been implemented for powers in the range -18 to +18. For numbers outside of this range the format reverts to exponential.

Other acceptable modifiers (which come after the "%" but before the format specifier) are "-", which left-justifies the number; "+", which forces all numbers to be explicitly signed; "#", which places a decimal point after floats that have only zeroes following the decimal point; a positive integer, which defines the field width; "0" (the digit, not the letter) immediately preceding the field width, which indicates that leading zeroes are to be used instead of leading blanks; and a decimal point followed by a non-negative integer, which defines the precision (the minimum number of digits of an integer, or the number of digits following the decimal point of a float).

Some releases of 'printf' may not support all of these modifiers but may also support others; in case of doubt, check the appropriate documentation and then experiment.

Examples:

           set format y "%t"; set ytics (5,10)          # "5.0" and "1.0"
           set format y "%s"; set ytics (500,1000)      # "500" and "1.0"
           set format y "+-12.3f"; set ytics(12345)     # "+12345.000  "
           set format y "%.2t*10^%+03T"; set ytic(12345)# "1.23*10^+04"
           set format y "%s*10^{%S}"; set ytic(12345)   # "12.345*10^{3}"
           set format y "%s %cg"; set ytic(12345)       # "12.345 kg"
           set format y "%.0P pi"; set ytic(6.283185)   # "2 pi"
           set format y "%.0f%%"; set ytic(50)          # "50%"
     
     
           set log y 2; set format y '%l'; set ytics (1,2,3)
           #displays "1.0", "1.0" and "1.5" (since 3 is 1.5 * 2^1)
     
     

There are some problem cases that arise when numbers like 9.999 are printed with a format that requires both rounding and a power.

If the data type for the axis is time/date, the format string must contain valid codes for the 'strftime' function (outside of `gnuplot`, type "man strftime"). See timefmt for a list of the allowed input format codes.


Node: time/date_specifiers, Previous: format_specifiers, Up: format

time/date specifiers

In time/date mode, the acceptable formats are:

           Format       Explanation
           %a           abbreviated name of day of the week
           %A           full name of day of the week
           %b or %h     abbreviated name of the month
           %B           full name of the month
           %d           day of the month, 1--31
           %D           shorthand for "%m/%d/%y"
           %H or %k     hour, 0--24
           %I or %l     hour, 0--12
           %j           day of the year, 1--366
           %m           month, 1--12
           %M           minute, 0--60
           %p           "am" or "pm"
           %r           shorthand for "%I:%M:%S %p"
           %R           shorthand for "%H:%M"
           %S           second, 0--60
           %T           shorthand for "%H:%M:%S"
           %U           week of the year (week starts on Sunday)
           %w           day of the week, 0--6 (Sunday = 0)
           %W           week of the year (week starts on Monday)
           %y           year, 0-99
           %Y           year, 4-digit
     
     

Except for the non-numerical formats, these may be preceded by a "0" ("zero", not "oh") to pad the field length with leading zeroes, and a positive digit, to define the minimum field width (which will be overridden if the specified width is not large enough to contain the number). There is a 24-character limit to the length of the printed text; longer strings will be truncated.

Examples:

Suppose the text is "76/12/25 23:11:11". Then

           set format x                 # defaults to "12/25/76" \n "23:11"
           set format x "%A, %d %b %Y"  # "Saturday, 25 Dec 1976"
           set format x "%r %D"         # "11:11:11 pm 12/25/76"
     
     

Suppose the text is "98/07/06 05:04:03". Then

           set format x "%1y/%2m/%3d %01H:%02M:%03S"  # "98/ 7/  6 5:04:003"
     
     


Node: function_style, Next: , Previous: format, Up: set-show

function style

This form of the command is deprecated. Please see `set style function`.


Node: functions, Next: , Previous: function_style, Up: set-show

functions

The `show functions` command lists all user-defined functions and their definitions.

Syntax:

           show functions
     
     

For information about the definition and usage of functions in `gnuplot`, please see `expressions`. See also splines as user defined functions (spline.dem) and use of functions and complex variables for airfoils (airfoil.dem).


Node: grid, Next: , Previous: functions, Up: set-show

grid

The `set grid` command allows grid lines to be drawn on the plot.

Syntax:

           set grid {{no}{m}xtics} {{no}{m}ytics} {{no}{m}ztics}
                    {{no}{m}x2tics} {{no}{m}y2tics}
                    {{no}{m}cbtics}
                    {polar {<angle>}}
                    {layerdefault | front | back}
                    { {linestyle <major_linestyle>}
                      | {linetype | lt <major_linetype>}
                        {linewidth | lw <major_linewidth>}
                      { , {linestyle | ls <minor_linestyle>}
                          | {linetype | lt <minor_linetype>}
                            {linewidth | lw <minor_linewidth>} } }
           unset grid
           show grid
     
     

The grid can be enabled and disabled for the major and/or minor tic marks on any axis, and the linetype and linewidth can be specified for major and minor grid lines, also via a predefined linestyle, as far as the active terminal driver supports this.

Additionally, a polar grid can be selected for 2-d plots--circles are drawn to intersect the selected tics, and radial lines are drawn at definable intervals. (The interval is given in degrees or radians, depending on the angles setting.) Note that a polar grid is no longer automatically generated in polar mode.

The pertinent tics must be enabled before `set grid` can draw them; `gnuplot` will quietly ignore instructions to draw grid lines at non-existent tics, but they will appear if the tics are subsequently enabled.

If no linetype is specified for the minor gridlines, the same linetype as the major gridlines is used. The default polar angle is 30 degrees.

If `front` is given, the grid is drawn on top of the graphed data. If `back` is given, the grid is drawn underneath the graphed data. Using `front` will prevent the grid from being obscured by dense data. The default setup, `layerdefault`, is equivalent to `back` for 2d plots. In 3D plots the default is to split up the grid and the graph box into two layers: one behind, the other in front of the plotted data and functions. Since hidden3d mode does its own sorting, it ignores all grid drawing order options and passes the grid lines through the hidden line removal machinery instead. These options actually affect not only the grid, but also the lines output by border and the various ticmarks (see xtics).

Z grid lines are drawn on the bottom of the plot. This looks better if a partial box is drawn around the plot--see border.


Node: hidden3d, Next: , Previous: grid, Up: set-show

hidden3d

The hidden3d command enables hidden line removal for surface plotting (see `splot`). Some optional features of the underlying algorithm can also be controlled using this command.

Syntax:

           set hidden3d {defaults} |
                        { {{offset <offset>} | {nooffset}}
                          {trianglepattern <bitpattern>}
                          {{undefined <level>} | {noundefined}}
                          {{no}altdiagonal}
                          {{no}bentover} }
           unset hidden3d
           show hidden3d
     
     

In contrast to the usual display in gnuplot, hidden line removal actually treats the given function or data grids as real surfaces that can't be seen through, so parts behind the surface will be hidden by it. For this to be possible, the surface needs to have 'grid structure' (see `splot datafile` about this), and it has to be drawn `with lines` or `with linespoints`.

When hidden3d is set, both the hidden portion of the surface and possibly its contours drawn on the base (see contour) as well as the grid will be hidden. Each surface has its hidden parts removed with respect to itself and to other surfaces, if more than one surface is plotted. Contours drawn on the surface (surface) don't work. Labels and arrows are always visible and are unaffected. The key is also never hidden by the surface.

Functions are evaluated at isoline intersections. The algorithm interpolates linearly between function points or data points when determining the visible line segments. This means that the appearance of a function may be different when plotted with hidden3d than when plotted with `nohidden3d` because in the latter case functions are evaluated at each sample. Please see samples and isosamples for discussion of the difference.

The algorithm used to remove the hidden parts of the surfaces has some additional features controllable by this command. Specifying `defaults` will set them all to their default settings, as detailed below. If `defaults` is not given, only explicitly specified options will be influenced: all others will keep their previous values, so you can turn on/off hidden line removal via `set {no}hidden3d`, without modifying the set of options you chose.

The first option, `offset`, influences the linestyle used for lines on the 'back' side. Normally, they are drawn in a linestyle one index number higher than the one used for the front, to make the two sides of the surface distinguishable. You can specify a different line style offset to add instead of the default 1, by `offset <offset>`. Option `nooffset` stands for `offset 0`, making the two sides of the surface use the same linestyle.

Next comes the option `trianglepattern <bitpattern>`. <bitpattern> must be a number between 0 and 7, interpreted as a bit pattern. Each bit determines the visibility of one edge of the triangles each surface is split up into. Bit 0 is for the 'horizontal' edges of the grid, Bit 1 for the 'vertical' ones, and Bit 2 for the diagonals that split each cell of the original grid into two triangles. The default pattern is 3, making all horizontal and vertical lines visible, but not the diagonals. You may want to choose 7 to see those diagonals as well.

The `undefined <level>` option lets you decide what the algorithm is to do with data points that are undefined (missing data, or undefined function values), or exceed the given x-, y- or z-ranges. Such points can either be plotted nevertheless, or taken out of the input data set. All surface elements touching a point that is taken out will be taken out as well, thus creating a hole in the surface. If <level> = 3, equivalent to option `noundefined`, no points will be thrown away at all. This may produce all kinds of problems elsewhere, so you should avoid this. <level> = 2 will throw away undefined points, but keep the out-of-range ones. <level> = 1, the default, will get rid of out-of-range points as well.

By specifying `noaltdiagonal`, you can override the default handling of a special case can occur if `undefined` is active (i.e. <level> is not 3). Each cell of the grid-structured input surface will be divided in two triangles along one of its diagonals. Normally, all these diagonals have the same orientation relative to the grid. If exactly one of the four cell corners is excluded by the `undefined` handler, and this is on the usual diagonal, both triangles will be excluded. However if the default setting of `altdiagonal` is active, the other diagonal will be chosen for this cell instead, minimizing the size of the hole in the surface.

The `bentover` option controls what happens to another special case, this time in conjunction with the `trianglepattern`. For rather crumply surfaces, it can happen that the two triangles a surface cell is divided into are seen from opposite sides (i.e. the original quadrangle is 'bent over'), as illustrated in the following ASCII art:

                                                                   C----B
         original quadrangle:  A--B      displayed quadrangle:     |\   |
           ("set view 0,0")    | /|    ("set view 75,75" perhaps)  | \  |
                               |/ |                                |  \ |
                               C--D                                |   \|
                                                                   A    D
     
     

If the diagonal edges of the surface cells aren't generally made visible by bit 2 of the <bitpattern> there, the edge CB above wouldn't be drawn at all, normally, making the resulting display hard to understand. Therefore, the default option of `bentover` will turn it visible in this case. If you don't want that, you may choose `nobentover` instead. See also hidden line removal demo (hidden.dem) and complex hidden line demo (singulr.dem).


Node: historysize, Next: , Previous: hidden3d, Up: set-show

historysize

Note: the command historysize is only available when compiled with the gnu readline.

Syntax:

           set historysize <int>
           unset historysize
     
     

When leaving gnuplot, the value of historysize is used for truncating the history to at most that much lines. The default is 500. historysize will disable history truncation and thus allow an infinite number of lines to be written to the history file.


Node: isosamples, Next: , Previous: historysize, Up: set-show

isosamples

The isoline density (grid) for plotting functions as surfaces may be changed by the isosamples command.

Syntax:

           set isosamples <iso_1> {,<iso_2>}
           show isosamples
     
     

Each function surface plot will have <iso_1> iso-u lines and <iso_2> iso-v lines. If you only specify <iso_1>, <iso_2> will be set to the same value as <iso_1>. By default, sampling is set to 10 isolines per u or v axis. A higher sampling rate will produce more accurate plots, but will take longer. These parameters have no effect on data file plotting.

An isoline is a curve parameterized by one of the surface parameters while the other surface parameter is fixed. Isolines provide a simple means to display a surface. By fixing the u parameter of surface s(u,v), the iso-u lines of the form c(v) = s(u0,v) are produced, and by fixing the v parameter, the iso-v lines of the form c(u) = s(u,v0) are produced.

When a function surface plot is being done without the removal of hidden lines, samples controls the number of points sampled along each isoline; see samples and hidden3d. The contour algorithm assumes that a function sample occurs at each isoline intersection, so change in samples as well as isosamples may be desired when changing the resolution of a function surface/contour.


Node: key, Next: , Previous: isosamples, Up: set-show

key

The key enables a key (or legend) describing plots on a plot.

The contents of the key, i.e., the names given to each plotted data set and function and samples of the lines and/or symbols used to represent them, are determined by the `title` and with options of the {`s`}`plot` command. Please see `plot title` and with for more information.

Syntax:

           set key {on|off} {default}
                   {left | right | top | bottom | outside | below | <position>}
                   {Left | Right} {{no}reverse}
                   {samplen <sample_length>} {spacing <vertical_spacing>}
                   {width <width_increment>}
                   {height <height_increment>}
                   {{no}autotitles}
                   {title "<text>"} {{no}enhanced}
                   {{no}box { {linestyle | ls <line_style>}
                              | {linetype | lt <line_type>}
                                {linewidth | lw <line_width>}}}
           unset key
           show key
     
     

By default the key is placed in the upper right corner of the graph. The keywords `left`, `right`, `top`, `bottom`, `outside` and `below` may be used to place the key in the other corners inside the graph or to the right (outside) or below the graph. They may be given alone or combined.

Plots may be drawn with no visible key by requesting `set key off` or key.

Justification of the labels within the key is controlled by `Left` or `Right` (default is `Right`). The text and sample can be reversed (`reverse`) and a box can be drawn around the key (`box {...}`) in a specified `linetype` and `linewidth`, or a user-defined `linestyle`. Note that not all terminal drivers support linewidth selection, though.

The length of the sample line can be controlled by `samplen`. The sample length is computed as the sum of the tic length and <sample_length> times the character width. `samplen` also affects the positions of point samples in the key since these are drawn at the midpoint of the sample line, even if the sample line itself is not drawn.

The vertical spacing between lines is controlled by `spacing`. The spacing is set equal to the product of the pointsize, the vertical tic size, and <vertical_spacing>. The program will guarantee that the vertical spacing is no smaller than the character height.

The <width_increment> is a number of character widths to be added to or subtracted from the length of the string. This is useful only when you are putting a box around the key and you are using control characters in the text. `gnuplot` simply counts the number of characters in the string when computing the box width; this allows you to correct it.

The <height_increment> is a number of character heights to be added to or subtracted from the height of the key box. This is useful mainly when you are putting a box around the key, otherwise it can be used to adjust the vertical shift of automatically chosen key position by <height_increment>/2.

All plotted curves of `plot`s and `splot`s are titled according to the default option `autotitles`. The automatic generation of titles can be suppressed by `noautotitles`; then only those titles explicitly defined by `(s)plot ... title ...` will be drawn.

A title can be put on the key (`title "<text>"`)--see also `syntax` for the distinction between text in single- or double-quotes. The key title uses the same justification as do the plot titles.

An explicitly given title is typeset using enhanced text properties on terminals supporting this, see `enhanced text` for more details. This default behavior can be switched off by the `noenhanced` option.

The defaults for key are `on`, `right`, `top`, `Right`, `noreverse`, `samplen 4`, `spacing 1.25`, `title ""`, and `nobox`. The default <linetype> is the same as that used for the plot borders. Entering `set key default` returns the key to its default configuration.

The <position> can be a simple x,y,z as in previous versions, but these can be preceded by one of four keywords (`first`, `second`, `graph`, `screen`) which selects the coordinate system in which the position of the first sample line is specified. See `coordinates` for more details.

The key is drawn as a sequence of lines, with one plot described on each line. On the right-hand side (or the left-hand side, if `reverse` is selected) of each line is a representation that attempts to mimic the way the curve is plotted. On the other side of each line is the text description (the line title), obtained from the `plot` command. The lines are vertically arranged so that an imaginary straight line divides the left- and right-hand sides of the key. It is the coordinates of the top of this line that are specified with the key command. In a `plot`, only the x and y coordinates are used to specify the line position. For a `splot`, x, y and z are all used as a 3-d location mapped using the same mapping as the graph itself to form the required 2-d screen position of the imaginary line.

Some or all of the key may be outside of the graph boundary, although this may interfere with other labels and may cause an error on some devices. If you use the keywords `outside` or `below`, `gnuplot` makes space for the keys and the graph becomes smaller. Putting keys outside to the right, they occupy as few columns as possible, and putting them below, as many columns as possible (depending of the length of the labels), thus stealing as little space from the graph as possible.

When using the TeX or PostScript drivers, or similar drivers where formatting information is embedded in the string, `gnuplot` is unable to calculate correctly the width of the string for key positioning. If the key is to be positioned at the left, it may be convenient to use the combination `set key left Left reverse`. The box and gap in the grid will be the width of the literal string.

If `splot` is being used to draw contours, the contour labels will be listed in the key. If the alignment of these labels is poor or a different number of decimal places is desired, the label format can be specified. See clabel for details.

Examples:

This places the key at the default location:

           set key default
     
     

This disables the key:

           unset key
     
     

This places a key at coordinates 2,3.5,2 in the default (first) coordinate system:

           set key 2,3.5,2
     
     

This places the key below the graph:

           set key below
     
     

This places the key in the bottom left corner, left-justifies the text, gives it a title, and draws a box around it in linetype 3:

           set key left bottom Left title 'Legend' box 3
     
     


Node: label, Next: , Previous: key, Up: set-show

label

Arbitrary labels can be placed on the plot using the label command.

Syntax:

           set label {<tag>}
                     { {"<label text>"{,<value>}} {, ...}} }
                     {at <position>}
                     {left | center | right}
                     {norotate | rotate {by <degrees>}}
                     {font "<name>{,<size>}"}
                     {front | back}
                     {textcolor <colorspec>}
                     {point <pointstyle> {offset x, y} | nopoint}
           unset label {<tag>}
           show label
     
     

The <position> is specified by either x,y or x,y,z, and may be preceded by `first`, `second`, `graph`, or `screen` to select the coordinate system. See `coordinates` for details.

The tag is an integer that is used to identify the label. If no <tag> is given, the lowest unused tag value is assigned automatically. The tag can be used to delete or modify a specific label. To change any attribute of an existing label, use the label command with the appropriate tag, and specify the parts of the label to be changed.

The <label text> can optionally contain numbers, generated by replacement of printf()-like format specifiers contained in <label text>. The number to be used is given by the <value> following the text. The same formatting capabilities as for tic labels are available. See the help on `format specifiers` for details. To display more than one distinct <value> with a single label, several pairs of <label text> and <value> may be given. Note that <value> is treated as a constant expression, i.e. if it contains variables, the label text will not change if the variable values are modified, later on. The decimalsign option, if active, overrides the decimal separator character of numbers entered into label texts.

By default, the text is placed flush left against the point x,y,z. To adjust the way the label is positioned with respect to the point x,y,z, add the justification parameter, which may be `left`, `right` or `center`, indicating that the point is to be at the left, right or center of the text. Labels outside the plotted boundaries are permitted but may interfere with axis labels or other text.

If `rotate` is given, the label is written vertically (if the terminal can do so, of course). If `rotate by <degrees>` is given, conforming terminals will try to write the text at the specified angle; non-conforming terminals will treat this as vertical text.

Font and its size can be chosen explicitly by `font "<name>{,<size>}"` if the terminal supports font settings. Otherwise the default font of the terminal will be used.

If `front` is given, the label is written on top of the graphed data. If `back` is given (the default), the label is written underneath the graphed data. Using `front` will prevent a label from being obscured by dense data.

`Textcolor <colorspec>` changes the color of the label text. `<colorspec>` is either a linetype or a mapping onto the pm3d color palette (available only in `splot`), see help for palette.

        `textcolor` may be abbreviated `tc`.
        `tc default` resets the text color to its default state.
        `tc lt <n>` sets the text color to that of line type <n>.
        `tc palette z` selects a palette color corresponding to the label z position.
        `tc palette cb <val>` selects a color corresponding to <val> on the colorbar.
        `tc palette fraction <val>`, with 0<=val<=1, selects a color corresponding to
            the mapping [0:1] to grays/colors of the palette.
     
     

If a <pointstyle> is given, using keywords `lt`, `pt` and `ps`, see style, a point with the given style and color of the given line type is plotted at the label position and the text of the label is displaced slightly. The displacement defaults to 1, 1 in pointsize units and can be controlled by the optional `offset x, y`. Example: `offset 2, -3` would displace the labels 2 * pointsize horizontally and -3 * pointsize vertically from the actual coordinate point as given by `position`. The size of the point depends also on the setting of pointsize. This option is used by default for placing labels in `mouse` enhanced terminals. Use `nopoint` to turn off the drawing of a point near the label (this is the default).

If one (or more) axis is timeseries, the appropriate coordinate should be given as a quoted time string according to the timefmt format string. See xdata and timefmt.

The EEPIC, Imagen, LaTeX, and TPIC drivers allow \\ in a string to specify a newline.

Examples:

To set a label at (1,2) to "y=x", use:

           set label "y=x" at 1,2
     
     

To set a Sigma of size 24, from the Symbol font set, at the center of the graph, use:

           set label "S" at graph 0.5,0.5 center font "Symbol,24"
     
     

To set a label "y=x^2" with the right of the text at (2,3,4), and tag the label as number 3, use:

           set label 3 "y=x^2" at 2,3,4 right
     
     

To change the preceding label to center justification, use:

           set label 3 center
     
     

To delete label number 2, use:

           unset label 2
     
     

To delete all labels, use:

           unset label
     
     

To show all labels (in tag order), use:

           show label
     
     

To set a label on a graph with a timeseries on the x axis, use, for example:

           set timefmt "%d/%m/%y,%H:%M"
           set label "Harvest" at "25/8/93",1
     
     

To display a freshly fitted parameter on the plot with the data and the fitted function, do this after the `fit`, but before the `plot`:

           set label 'a = %3.5g',par_a     at 30, 15
           set label 'b = %s*10^%S',par_b  at 30, 20
     
     

To set a label displaced a little bit from a small point:

           set label 'origin' at 0,0 point lt 1 pt 2 ps 3 offset 1,-1
     
     

To set a label whose color matches the z value (in this case 5.5) of some point on a 3D splot colored using pm3d:

           set label 'text' at 0,0,5.5 tc palette z
     
     


Node: lmargin, Next: , Previous: label, Up: set-show

lmargin

The command lmargin sets the size of the left margin. Please see margin for details.


Node: loadpath, Next: , Previous: lmargin, Up: set-show

loadpath

The loadpath setting defines additional locations for data and command files searched by the call, `load`, `plot` and `splot` commands. If a file cannot be found in the current directory, the directories in loadpath are tried.

Syntax:

           set loadpath {"pathlist1" {"pathlist2"...}}
           show loadpath
     
     

Path names may be entered as single directory names, or as a list of path names separated by a platform-specific path separator, eg. colon (':') on Unix, semicolon (';') on DOS/Windows/OS/2/Amiga platforms. The loadpath, save and `save set` commands replace the platform-specific separator with a space character (' ') for maximum portability.

If the environment variable GNUPLOT_LIB is set, its contents are appended to loadpath. However, loadpath prints the contents of user defined loadpath and system loadpath separately. Also, the save and `save set` commands save only the user specified parts of loadpath, for portability reasons.


Node: locale, Next: , Previous: loadpath, Up: set-show

locale

The locale setting determines the language with which `{x,y,z}{d,m}tics` will write the days and months.

Syntax:

           set locale {"<locale>"}
     
     

<locale> may be any language designation acceptable to your installation. See your system documentation for the available options. The default value is determined from the LANG environment variable.


Node: logscale, Next: , Previous: locale, Up: set-show

logscale

Log scaling may be set on the x, y, z, x2 and/or y2 axes.

Syntax:

           set logscale <axes> <base>
           unset logscale <axes>
           show logscale
     
     

where <axes> may be any combinations of `x`, `y`, `z`, and `cb` in any order, or `x2` or `y2` and where <base> is the base of the log scaling. If <base> is not given, then 10 is assumed. If <axes> is not given, then all axes are assumed. logscale turns off log scaling for the specified axes.

Examples:

To enable log scaling in both x and z axes:

           set logscale xz
     
     

To enable scaling log base 2 of the y axis:

           set logscale y 2
     
     

To enable z and color log axes for a pm3d plot:

           set logscale zcb
     
     

To disable z axis log scaling:

           unset logscale z
     
     


Node: mapping, Next: , Previous: logscale, Up: set-show

mapping

If data are provided to `splot` in spherical or cylindrical coordinates, the mapping command should be used to instruct `gnuplot` how to interpret them.

Syntax:

           set mapping {cartesian | spherical | cylindrical}
     
     

A cartesian coordinate system is used by default.

For a spherical coordinate system, the data occupy two or three columns (or using entries). The first two are interpreted as the azimuthal and polar angles theta and phi (or "longitude" and "latitude"), in the units specified by angles. The radius r is taken from the third column if there is one, or is set to unity if there is no third column. The mapping is:

           x = r * cos(theta) * cos(phi)
           y = r * sin(theta) * cos(phi)
           z = r * sin(phi)
     
     

Note that this is a "geographic" spherical system, rather than a "polar" one (that is, phi is measured from the equator, rather than the pole).

For a cylindrical coordinate system, the data again occupy two or three columns. The first two are interpreted as theta (in the units specified by angles) and z. The radius is either taken from the third column or set to unity, as in the spherical case. The mapping is:

           x = r * cos(theta)
           y = r * sin(theta)
           z = z
     
     

The effects of mapping can be duplicated with the using filter on the `splot` command, but mapping may be more convenient if many data files are to be processed. However even if mapping is used, using may still be necessary if the data in the file are not in the required order. mapping has no effect on `plot`. world.dem: mapping demos.


Node: margin, Next: , Previous: mapping, Up: set-show

margin

The computed margins can be overridden by the margin commands. margin shows the current settings.

Syntax:

           set bmargin {<margin>}
           set lmargin {<margin>}
           set rmargin {<margin>}
           set tmargin {<margin>}
           show margin
     
     

The units of <margin> are character heights or widths, as appropriate. A positive value defines the absolute size of the margin. A negative value (or none) causes `gnuplot` to revert to the computed value. For 3D plots, only the left margin setting has any effect so far.

Normally the margins of a plot are automatically calculated based on tics, tic labels, axis labels, the plot title, the timestamp and the size of the key if it is outside the borders. If, however, tics are attached to the axes (`set xtics axis`, for example), neither the tics themselves nor their labels will be included in either the margin calculation or the calculation of the positions of other text to be written in the margin. This can lead to tic labels overwriting other text if the axis is very close to the border.


Node: mouse, Next: , Previous: margin, Up: set-show

mouse

The command `set mouse` enables mouse actions. Currently the pm, x11, ggi and windows terminals are mouse enhanced. There are two mouse modes. The 2d-graph mode works for 2d graphs and for maps (i.e. splots with view having z-rotation 0, 90, 180, 270 or 360 degrees) and it allows tracing the position over graph, zooming, annotating graph etc. For 3d graphs `splot`, the view and scaling of the graph can be changed with mouse buttons 1 and 2. If additionally to these buttons the modifier <ctrl> is hold down, the coordinate system only is rotated which is useful for large data sets. A vertical motion of Button 2 with the shift key hold down changes the ticslevel.

Mousing is not available in multiplot mode. If multiplot is disabled using multiplot though, the mouse will be turned on again and acts on the last plot (like replot does).

Syntax:

           set mouse [doubleclick <ms>] [nodoubleclick] \
                     [[no]zoomcoordinates] \
                     [[no]polardistance] \
                     [format <string>] \
                     [clipboardformat <int>/<string>] \
                     [mouseformat <int>/<string>] \
                     [[no]labels] [labeloptions <string>] \
                     [[no]zoomjump] [[no]verbose]
           unset mouse
     
     

The doubleclick resolution is given in milliseconds and used for Button 1 which copies the current mouse position to the `clipboard`. If you want that to be done by single clicking a value of 0 ms can be used. The default value is 300 ms.

The option `zoomcoordinates` determines if the coordinates of the zoom box are drawn at the edges while zooming. This is on by default.

The option `polardistance` determines if the distance to the ruler is also shown in polar coordinates. This corresponds to the default key binding '5'.

The `format` option takes a fprintf like format string which determines how floating point numbers are printed to the drivers window and the clipboard. The default is "% #g".

`clipboardformat` and `mouseformat` are used for formatting the text on Button1 and Button2 actions - copying the coordinates to the clipboard and temporarily annotating the mouse position. This corresponds to the key bindings '1', '2', '3', '4' (see the drivers's help window). If the argument is a string this string is used as c format specifier and should contain two float specifiers, e.g. `set mouse mouseformat "mouse = %5.2g, %10.2f"`. Use `set mouse mouseformat ""` to turn this string off again.

The following formats are available (format 6 may only be selected if the format string was specified already):

      0   real coordinates in  brackets e.g. [1.23, 2.45]
      1   real coordinates w/o brackets e.g.  1.23, 2.45
      2   x == timefmt                       [(as set by timefmt), 2.45]
      3   x == date                          [31. 12. 1999, 2.45]
      4   x == time                          [23:59, 2.45]
      5   x == date / time                   [31. 12. 1999 23:59, 2.45]
      6   alt. format, specified as string   ""
     
     

Choose the option `labels` to get real gnuplot labels on Button 2. (The default is `nolabels` which makes Button 2 drawing only temporary annotations at the mouse positions). The labels are drawn with the current setting of `mouseformat`. `labeloptions` controls which options are passed to the label command. The default is "pointstyle 1" which will plot a small plus at the label position. Note that the pointsize is taken from the pointsize command. Labels can be removed by holding the Ctrl-Key down while clicking with Button 2 on the label's point. The threshold for how close you must be to the label is also determined by the pointsize.

If the option `zoomjump` is on, the mouse pointer will be automatically offset a small distance after starting a zoom region with button 3. This can be useful to avoid a tiny (or even empty) zoom region. `zoomjump` is off by default.

If the option `verbose` is turned on the communication commands are shown during execution. This option can also be toggled by hitting `6` in the driver's window. `verbose` is off by default.

Press 'h' in the driver's window for a short summary of the mouse and key bindings. This will also display user defined bindings or `hotkeys` which can be defined using the bind command, see help for bind. Note, that user defined `hotkeys` may override the default bindings.

Press 'q' in the driver's window to close the window. This key cannot be overridden with the bind command.

See also help for bind and label.


Node: x11_mouse, Previous: mouse, Up: mouse

x11_mouse

X11 mouse support is turned on by default if standard input comes from a terminal (tty). Mouse support is turned off if standard input does not come from a tty, e.g. a pipe. If you want to use mouse support while writing to gnuplot from a pipe, the mouse must be turned on *before* starting the x11 driver, e.g. immediately after startup with the explicit command `set mouse`. Beware: on some UNIX flavours, special input devices as /dev/null might not be `select-able`; turning on the mouse when using such devices will hang gnuplot.

If multiple X11 plot windows have been opened using the `set term x11 <n>` terminal option, then only the current plot window supports the entire range of mouse commands and hotkeys. The other windows will, however, continue to display mouse coordinates at the lower left.


Node: multiplot, Next: , Previous: mouse, Up: set-show

multiplot

The command multiplot places `gnuplot` in the multiplot mode, in which several plots are placed on the same page, window, or screen.

Syntax:

           set multiplot
           unset multiplot
     
     

For some terminals, no plot is displayed until the command multiplot is given, which causes the entire page to be drawn and then returns `gnuplot` to its normal single-plot mode. For other terminals, each separate `plot` command produces a plot, but the screen may not be cleared between plots.

Any labels or arrows that have been defined will be drawn for each plot according to the current size and origin (unless their coordinates are defined in the `screen` system). Just about everything else that can be `set` is applied to each plot, too. If you want something to appear only once on the page, for instance a single time stamp, you'll need to put a `set time`/`unset time` pair around one of the `plot`, `splot` or replot commands within the multiplot/multiplot block.

The commands origin and size must be used to correctly position each plot; see origin and size for details of their usage.

Example:

           set size 0.7,0.7
           set origin 0.1,0.1
           set multiplot
           set size 0.4,0.4
           set origin 0.1,0.1
           plot sin(x)
           set size 0.2,0.2
           set origin 0.5,0.5
           plot cos(x)
           unset multiplot
     
     

displays a plot of cos(x) stacked above a plot of sin(x). Note the initial size and origin. While these are not always required, their inclusion is recommended. Some terminal drivers require that bounding box information be available before any plots can be made, and the form given above guarantees that the bounding box will include the entire plot array rather than just the bounding box of the first plot. size and origin refer to the entire plotting area used for each plot. If you want to have the axes themselves line up, you can guarantee that the margins are the same size with the margin commands. See margin for their use. Note that the margin settings are absolute, in character units, so the appearance of the graph in the remaining space will depend on the screen size of the display device, e.g., perhaps quite different on a video display and a printer. See also multiplot demo (multiplt.dem).


Node: mx2tics, Next: , Previous: multiplot, Up: set-show

mx2tics

Minor tic marks along the x2 (top) axis are controlled by mx2tics. Please see mxtics.


Node: mxtics, Next: , Previous: mx2tics, Up: set-show

mxtics

Minor tic marks along the x axis are controlled by mxtics. They can be turned off with mxtics. Similar commands control minor tics along the other axes.

Syntax:

           set mxtics {<freq> | default}
           unset mxtics
           show mxtics
     
     

The same syntax applies to mytics, mztics, mx2tics, my2tics and `mcbtics`.

<freq> is the number of sub-intervals (NOT the number of minor tics) between major tics (the default for a linear axis is either two or five depending on the major tics, so there are one or four minor tics between major tics). Selecting `default` will return the number of minor ticks to its default value.

If the axis is logarithmic, the number of sub-intervals will be set to a reasonable number by default (based upon the length of a decade). This will be overridden if <freq> is given. However the usual minor tics (2, 3, ..., 8, 9 between 1 and 10, for example) are obtained by setting <freq> to 10, even though there are but nine sub-intervals.

Minor tics can be used only with uniformly spaced major tics. Since major tics can be placed arbitrarily by `set {x|x2|y|y2|z}tics`, minor tics cannot be used if major tics are explicitly `set`.

By default, minor tics are off for linear axes and on for logarithmic axes. They inherit the settings for `axis|border` and `{no}mirror` specified for the major tics. Please see xtics for information about these.


Node: my2tics, Next: , Previous: mxtics, Up: set-show

my2tics

Minor tic marks along the y2 (right-hand) axis are controlled by my2tics. Please see mxtics.


Node: mytics, Next: , Previous: my2tics, Up: set-show

mytics

Minor tic marks along the y axis are controlled by mytics. Please see mxtics.


Node: mztics, Next: , Previous: mytics, Up: set-show

mztics

Minor tic marks along the z axis are controlled by mztics. Please see mxtics.


Node: offsets, Next: , Previous: mztics, Up: set-show

offsets

Offsets provide a mechanism to put a boundary around the data inside of an autoscaled graph.

Syntax:

           set offsets <left>, <right>, <top>, <bottom>
           unset offsets
           show offsets
     
     

Each offset may be a constant or an expression. Each defaults to 0. Left and right offsets are given in units of the x axis, top and bottom offsets in units of the y axis. A positive offset expands the graph in the specified direction, e.g., a positive bottom offset makes ymin more negative. Negative offsets, while permitted, can have unexpected interactions with autoscaling and clipping.

Offsets are ignored in `splot`s.

Example:

           set offsets 0, 0, 2, 2
           plot sin(x)
     
     

This graph of sin(x) will have a y range [-3:3] because the function will be autoscaled to [-1:1] and the vertical offsets are each two.


Node: origin, Next: , Previous: offsets, Up: set-show

origin

The origin command is used to specify the origin of a plotting surface (i.e., the graph and its margins) on the screen. The coordinates are given in the `screen` coordinate system (see `coordinates` for information about this system).

Syntax:

           set origin <x-origin>,<y-origin>
     
     


Node: output, Next: , Previous: origin, Up: set-show

output

By default, screens are displayed to the standard output. The output command redirects the display to the specified file or device.

Syntax:

           set output {"<filename>"}
           show output
     
     

The filename must be enclosed in quotes. If the filename is omitted, any output file opened by a previous invocation of output will be closed and new output will be sent to STDOUT. (If you give the command `set output "STDOUT"`, your output may be sent to a file named "STDOUT"! ["May be", not "will be", because some terminals, like `x11`, ignore output.])

MSDOS users should note that the \ character has special significance in double-quoted strings, so single-quotes should be used for filenames in different directories.

When both terminal and output are used together, it is safest to give terminal first, because some terminals set a flag which is needed in some operating systems. This would be the case, for example, if the operating system needs to know whether or not a file is to be formatted in order to open it properly.

On machines with popen functions (Unix), output can be piped through a shell command if the first non-whitespace character of the filename is '|'. For instance,

           set output "|lpr -Plaser filename"
           set output "|lp -dlaser filename"
     
     

On MSDOS machines, `set output "PRN"` will direct the output to the default printer. On VMS, output can be sent directly to any spooled device. It is also possible to send the output to DECnet transparent tasks, which allows some flexibility.


Node: parametric_, Next: , Previous: output, Up: set-show

parametric

The `set parametric` command changes the meaning of `plot` (`splot`) from normal functions to parametric functions. The command `unset parametric` restores the plotting style to normal, single-valued expression plotting.

Syntax:

           set parametric
           unset parametric
           show parametric
     
     

For 2-d plotting, a parametric function is determined by a pair of parametric functions operating on a parameter. An example of a 2-d parametric function would be `plot sin(t),cos(t)`, which draws a circle (if the aspect ratio is set correctly--see size). `gnuplot` will display an error message if both functions are not provided for a parametric `plot`.

For 3-d plotting, the surface is described as x=f(u,v), y=g(u,v), z=h(u,v). Therefore a triplet of functions is required. An example of a 3-d parametric function would be `cos(u)*cos(v),cos(u)*sin(v),sin(u)`, which draws a sphere. `gnuplot` will display an error message if all three functions are not provided for a parametric `splot`.

The total set of possible plots is a superset of the simple f(x) style plots, since the two functions can describe the x and y values to be computed separately. In fact, plots of the type t,f(t) are equivalent to those produced with f(x) because the x values are computed using the identity function. Similarly, 3-d plots of the type u,v,f(u,v) are equivalent to f(x,y).

Note that the order the parametric functions are specified is xfunction, yfunction (and zfunction) and that each operates over the common parametric domain.

Also, the `set parametric` function implies a new range of values. Whereas the normal f(x) and f(x,y) style plotting assume an xrange and yrange (and zrange), the parametric mode additionally specifies a trange, urange, and vrange. These ranges may be set directly with trange, urange, and vrange, or by specifying the range on the `plot` or `splot` commands. Currently the default range for these parametric variables is [-5:5]. Setting the ranges to something more meaningful is expected.


Node: plot_, Next: , Previous: parametric_, Up: set-show

plot

The `show plot` command shows the current plotting command as it results from the last `plot` and/or `splot` and possible subsequent replot commands.

In addition, the `show plot add2history` command adds this current plot command into the `history`. It is useful if you have used replot to add more curves to the current plot and you want to edit the whole command now.


Node: pm3d, Next: , Previous: plot_, Up: set-show

pm3d

pm3d is an `splot` style for drawing palette-mapped 3d and 4d data as color/gray maps and surfaces. It uses a pm3d algorithm which allows plotting gridded as well as non-gridded data without preprocessing, even when the data scans do not have the same number of points.

Drawing of color surfaces is available on terminals supporting filled colored polygons with color mapping specified by palette. Currently supported terminals include

       Screen terminals:
         OS/2 Presentation Manager
         X11
         Linux VGA (vgagl)
         GGI
         Windows
         AquaTerm (Mac OS X)
       Files:
         PostScript
         pslatex, pstex, epslatex
         gif, png, jpeg
         (x)fig
         tgif
         cgm
         pdf
         svg
     
     

Let us first describe how a map/surface is drawn. The input data come from an evaluated function or from an file. Each surface consists of a sequence of separate scans (isolines). The pm3d algorithm fills the region between two neighbouring points in one scan with another two points in the next scan by a gray (or color) according to z-values (or according to an additional 'color' column, see help for using) of these 4 corners; by default the 4 corner values are averaged, but this can be changed by the option `corners2color`. In order to get a reasonable surface, the neighbouring scans should not cross and the number of points in the neighbouring scans should not differ too much; of course, the best plot is with scans having same number of points. There are no other requirements (e.g. the data need not be gridded). Another advantage is that the pm3d algorithm does not draw anything outside of the input (measured or calculated) region.

Surface coloring works with the following input data:

1. splot of function or of data file with one or three data columns: The gray/color scale is obtained by mapping the averaged (or `corners2color`) z-coordinate of the four corners of the above-specified quadrangle into the range [min_color_z,max_color_z] of zrange or cbrange providing a gray value in the range [0:1]. This value can be used directly as the gray for gray maps. The normalized gray value can be further mapped into a color--see palette for the complete description.

2. splot of data file with two or four data columns: The gray/color value is obtained by using the last-column coordinate instead of the z-value, thus allowing the color and the z-coordinate be mutually independent. This can be used for 4d data drawing.

Other notes:

1. The term 'scan' referenced above is used more among physicists than the term 'iso_curve' referenced in gnuplot documentation and sources. You measure maps recorded one scan after another scan, that's why.

2. The 'gray' or 'color' scale is a linear mapping of a continuous variable onto a smoothly varying palette of colors. The mapping is shown in a rectangle next to the main plot. This documentation refers to this as a "colorbox", and refers to the indexing variable as lying on the colorbox axis. See `set colorbox`, cbrange.

3. To use pm3d coloring to generate a two-dimensional plot rather than a 3D surface, use `set view map` or `set pm3d map`.

Syntax:

           set pm3d
           set pm3d {
                      { at <bst combination> }
                      { scansautomatic | scansforward | scansbackward }
                      { flush { begin | center | end } }
                      { ftriangles | noftriangles }
                      { clip1in | clip4in }
                      { corners2color { mean|geomean|median|c1|c2|c3|c4 } }
                      { hidden3d <linestyle> | nohidden3d }
                      { implicit | explicit }
                      { map }
                    }
           show pm3d
           unset pm3d
     
     

Setting pm3d (i.e. without options) sets up the default values. Otherwise, the options can be given in any order.

Color surface can be drawn at the base or top (then it is a gray/color planar map) or at z-coordinates of surface points (gray/color surface). This is defined by the `at` option with a string of up to 6 combinations of `b`, `t` and `s`. For instance, `at b` plots at bottom only, `at st` plots firstly surface and then top map, while `at bstbst` will never by seriously used.

Colored quadrangles are plotted one after another. When plotting surfaces (`at s`), the later quadrangles overlap (overdraw) the previous ones. (Gnuplot is not virtual reality tool to calculate intersections of filled polygon meshes.) You may try to switch between `scansforward` and `scansbackward` to force the first scan of the data to be plotted first or last. The default is `scansautomatic` where gnuplot makes a guess about scans order.

If two subsequent scans do not have same number of points, then it has to be decided whether to start taking points for quadrangles from the beginning of both scans (`flush begin`), from their ends (`flush end`) or to center them (`flush center`). Note, that `flush (center|end)` are incompatible with `scansautomatic`: if you specify `flush center` or `flush end` and `scansautomatic` is set, it is silently switched to `scansforward`.

If two subsequent scans do not have the same number of points, the option `ftriangles` specifies whether color triangles are drawn at the scan tail(s) where there are not enough points in either of the scan. This can be used to draw a smooth map boundary.

Clipping with respect to x, y coordinates of quadrangles can be done in two ways. `clip1in`: all 4 points of each quadrangle must be defined and at least 1 point of the quadrangle must lie in the x and y ranges. `clip4in`: all 4 points of each quadrangle must lie in the x and y ranges.

There is a single gray/color value associated to each drawn pm3d quadrangle (no smooth color change among vertices). The value is calculated from z-coordinates from the surrounding corners according to `corners2color <option>`. The options 'mean' (default), 'geomean' and 'median' produce various kinds of surface color smoothing. This may not be desired for pixel images or for maps with sharp and intense peaks, in which case the options 'c1', 'c2', 'c3' or 'c4' can be used instead to assign the quadrangle color based on the z-coordinate of only one corner. Some experimentation may be needed to determine which corner corresponds to 'c1', as the orientation depends on the drawing direction. Because the pm3d algorithm does not extend the colored surface outside the range of the input data points, the 'c<j>' coloring options will result in pixels along two edges of the grid not contributing to the color of any quadrangle. For example, applying the pm3d algorithm to the 4x4 grid of data points in script `demo/pm3d.dem` (please have a look) produces only (4-1)x(4-1)=9 colored rectangles.

Another drawing algorithm, which would draw quadrangles around a given node by taking corners from averaged (x,y)-coordinates of its surrounding 4 nodes while using node's color, could be implemented in the future.

Notice that ranges of z-values and color-values for surfaces are adjustable independently by zrange, cbrange, as well as `set log` for z or cb. Maps can be adjusted by the cb-axis only; see also `set view map` and `set colorbox`.

The option hidden3d takes as the argument a linestyle which must be created by `set style line ...`. (The style need not to be present when setting pm3d, but it must be present when plotting). If set, lines are drawn using the specified line style, taking into account hidden line removal. This is by far more efficient than using the command hidden3d as it doesn't really calculate hidden line removal, but just draws the filled polygons in the correct order. So the recommended choice when using pm3d is

           set pm3d at s hidden3d 100
           set style line 100 lt 5 lw 0.5
           unset hidden3d
           unset surf
           splot x*x+y*y
     
     

There used to be an option {transparent|solid} to this command. Now you get the same effect from `set grid {front|layerdefault}`, respectively.

The `set pm3d map` is an abbreviation for `set pm3d at b`; `set view map`; pm3d; pm3d;. It is used for backwards compatibility, when `set view map` was not available. Take care that you properly use zrange and cbrange for input data point filtering and color range scaling, respectively; and also `set (no)surface` seems to have a (side?) effect.

The coloring setup as well as the color box drawing are determined by palette. There can be only one palette for the current plot. Drawing of several surfaces with different palettes can be achieved by multiplot with fixed origin and size; don't forget to use `set palette maxcolors` when your terminal is running out of available colors.

If the option `implicit` is on (which is the default), all surface plots will be plotted additionally to the default type, e.g.

           splot 'fred.dat' with lines, 'lola.dat' with lines
     

would give both plots additionally to a pm3d surface. If the option `implicit` is off (or `explicit` is on) only plots specified by the pm3d attribute are plotted with a pm3d surface, e.g.:

           splot 'fred.dat' with lines, 'lola.dat' with pm3d
     

would plot 'fred.dat' with lines (and only lines) and 'lola.dat' with a pm3d surface. If `explicit` is on, you can also switch to the default style pm3d, e.g.:

           set style data pm3d
     
     

Note that when plotting several plots, they are plotted in the order given on the command line. This can be of interest especially for filled surfaces which can overwrite and therefore hide part of earlier plots.

If pm3d is specified in the `splot` command line, then it accepts the 'at' option. The following plots draw three color surfaces at different altitudes:

           set border 4095
           set pm3d at s
           splot 10*x with pm3d at b, x*x-y*y, x*x+y*y with pm3d at t
     
     

See also help for palette, cbrange, `set colorbox`, pm3d and definitely the demo file `demo/pm3d.dem`.


Node: palette, Next: , Previous: pm3d, Up: set-show

palette

Palette is a color storage for use by pm3d, filled color contours or polygons, color histograms, color gradient background, and whatever it is or it will be implemented... Here it stands for a palette of smooth "continuous" colors or grays, but let's call it just a palette.

Color palettes require terminal entries for filled color polygons and palettes of smooth colors, are currently available for terminals listed in help for pm3d. The range of color values are adjustable independently by cbrange and `set log cb`. The whole color palette is visualized in the `colorbox`.

Syntax:

           set palette
           set palette {
                      { gray | color }
                      { gamma <gamma> }
                      {   rgbformulae <r>,<g>,<b>
                        | defined { ( <gray1> <color1> {, <grayN> <colorN>}... ) }
                        | file '<filename>' {datafile-modifiers}
                        | functions <R>,<G>,<B>
                      }
                      { model { RGB | HSV | CMY | YIQ | XYZ } }
                      { positive | negative }
                      { nops_allcF | ps_allcF }
                      { maxcolors <maxcolors> }
                    }
           show palette
           show palette palette <n> {{float | int}}
           show palette gradient
           show palette fit2rgbformulae
           show palette rgbformulae
           show palette colornames
     
     
palette (i.e. without options) sets up the default values. Otherwise, the options can be given in any order. palette shows the current palette properties.

`show palette gradient` displays the gradient defining the palette (if appropriate). rgbformulae prints the available fixed gray -> color transformation formulae. `show palette colornames` prints the implemented color names.

`show palette palette <n>` prints to screen or to the file given by output table of RGB triplets calculated for the current palette settings and a palette having <n> discrete colors. The default wide table can be limited to 3 columns of r,g,b float values [0..1] or integer values [0..255] by options float or int, respectively. This way, the current gnuplot color palette can be loaded into other imaging applications, for example Octave. Additionally to this textual list of RGB table, you can enjoy command palette to draw graphically the R,G,B profiles for the current palette.

The following options determine the coloring properties.

Figure using this palette can be `gray` or `color`. For instance, in pm3d color surfaces the gray of each small spot is obtained by mapping the averaged z-coordinate of the 4 corners of surface quadrangles into the range [min_z,max_z] providing range of grays [0:1]. This value can be used directly as the gray for gray maps. The color map requires a transformation gray -> (R,G,B), i.e. a mapping [0:1] -> ([0:1],[0:1],[0:1]).

Basically two different types of mappings can be used: Analytic formulae to convert gray to color, or discrete mapping tables which are interpolated. rgbformulae and `functions` use analytic formulae whereas `defined` and file use interpolated tables. rgbformulae reduces the size of postscript output to a minimum.

The command `show palette fit2rgbformulae` finds the best matching rgbformulae for the current palette. Naturally, it makes sense to use it for non-rgbformulae palettes. This command can be found useful mainly for external programs using the same rgbformulae definition of palettes as gnuplot, like zimg.

`set palette gray` switches to a gray only palette. rgbformulae, `defined`, file and `functions` switch to a color mapping. `set palette color` is an easy way to switch back from the gray palette to the last color mapping.

Automatic gamma correction via `set palette gamma <gamma>` can be done for gray maps only (`set palette gray`). Linear mapping to gray is for gamma equals 1, see palette. Gamma is ignored for color mappings.

Most terminals support only discrete number of colors (e.g. 256 colors in gif). All entries of the palette remaining after the default gnuplot linetype colors declaration are allocated for pm3d by default. Then multiplot could fail if there are no more color positions in the terminal available. Then you should use `set palette maxcolors <maxcolors>` with a reasonably small value. This option can also be used to separate levels of z=constant in discrete steps, thus to emulate filled contours. Default value of 0 stays for allocating all remaining entries in the terminal palette or for to use exact mapping to RGB.

RGB color space might not be the most useful color space to work in. For that reason you may change the color space with `model` to one of `RGB`, `HSV`, `CMY`, `YIQ` and `XYZ`. Using color names for `defined` tables and a color space other than RGB will result in funny colors. All explanation have been written for RGB color space, so please note, that `R` can be `H`, `C`, `Y`, or `X`, depending on the actual color space (`G` and `B` accordingly).

All values for all color spaces are limited to [0,1].

RGB stands for Red, Green and Blue; CMY stands for Cyan, Magenta and Yellow; HSV stands for Hue, Saturation, and Value; YIQ is the color model used by the U.S. Commercial Color Television Broadcasting, it is basically an RGB recoding with downward compatibility for black and white television; XYZ are the three primary colors of the color model defined by the 'Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage' (CIE). For more information on color models see: http://www.cs.rit.edu/~ncs/color/glossary.htm and http://cs.fit.edu/wds/classes/cse5255/cse5255/davis/index.html


Node: rgbformulae, Next: , Previous: palette, Up: palette

rgbformulae

For rgbformulae three suitable mapping functions have to be chosen. This is done via `rgbformulae <r>,<g>,<b>`. The available mapping functions are listed by rgbformulae. Default is `7,5,15`, some other examples are `3,11,6`, `21,23,3` or `3,23,21`. Negative numbers, like `3,-11,-6`, mean inverted color (i.e. 1-gray passed into the formula, see also `positive` and `negative` options below).

Some nice schemes in RGB color space

        7,5,15   ... traditional pm3d (black-blue-red-yellow)
        3,11,6   ... green-red-violet
        23,28,3  ... ocean (green-blue-white); try also all other permutations
        21,22,23 ... hot (black-red-yellow-white)
        30,31,32 ... color printable on gray (black-blue-violet-yellow-white)
        33,13,10 ... rainbow (blue-green-yellow-red)
        34,35,36 ... AFM hot (black-red-yellow-white)
     
     

A full color palette in HSV color space

        3,2,2    ... red-yellow-green-cyan-blue-magenta-red
     
     

Please note that even if called rgbformulae the formulas might actually determine the <H>,<S>,<V> or <X>,<Y>,<Z> or ... color components as usual.

Use `positive` and `negative` to invert the figure colors. ^ <a name="positive"></a> ^ <a name="negative"></a>

Note that it is possible to find a set of the best matching rgbformulae for any other color scheme by the command

        show palette fit2rgbformulae
     
     


Node: defined_, Next: , Previous: rgbformulae, Up: palette

defined

Gray-to-rgb mapping can be manually set by use of `defined`: A color gradient is defined and used to give the rgb values. Such a gradient is a piecewise linear mapping from gray values in [0,1] to the RGB space [0,1]x[0,1]x[0,1]. You have to specify the gray values and the corresponding RGB values in between a linear interpolation shall take place:

Syntax:

           set palette  defined { ( <gray1> <color1> {, <grayN> <colorN>}... ) }
     
     

<grayX> are gray values which are mapped to [0,1] and <colorX> are the corresponding rgb colors. The color can be specified in three different ways:

          <color> :=  { <r> <g> <b> | '<color-name>' | '#rrggbb' }
     
     

Either by three numbers (each in [0,1]) for red, green and blue, separated by whitespace, or the name of the color in quotes or X style color specifiers also in quotes. You may freely mix the three types in a gradient definition, but the named color "red" will be something strange if RGB is not selected as color space. Use `show palette colornames` for a list of known color names.

Please note, that even if written as <r>, this might actually be the <H> component in HSV color space or <X> in CIE-XYZ space, or ... depending on the selected color model.

The <gray> values have to form an ascending sequence of real numbers; the sequence will be automatically rescaled to [0,1].

`set palette defined` (without a gradient definition in braces) switches to RGB color space and uses a preset full-spectrum color gradient. Use `show palette gradient` to display the gradient.

Examples:

To produce a gray palette (useless but instructive) use:

          set palette model RGB
          set palette defined ( 0 "black", 1 "white" )
     
     

To produce a blue yellow red palette use (all equivalent):

           set palette defined ( 0 "blue", 1 "yellow", 2 "red" )
           set palette defined ( 0 0 0 1, 1 1 1 0, 2 1 0 0 )
           set palette defined ( 0 "#0000ff", 1 "#ffff00", 2 "ff0000" )
     
     

To produce some rainbow-like palette use:

           set palette defined ( 0 "blue", 3 "green", 6 "yellow", 10 "red" )
     
     

Full color spectrum within HSV color space:

           set palette model HSV
           set palette defined ( 0 0 1 1, 1 1 1 1 )
           set palette defined ( 0 0 1 0, 1 0 1 1, 6 0.8333 1 1, 7 0.8333 0 1)
     
     

To produce a palette with few colors only use:

           set palette model RGB maxcolors 4
           set palette defined ( 0 "blue", 1 "green", 2 "yellow", 3 "red" )
     
     

'Traffic light' palette (non-smooth color jumps at gray = 1/3 and 2/3).

           set palette model RGB
           set palette defined (0 "dark-green", 1 "green", 1 "yellow", \
                                2 "dark-yellow", 2 "red", 3 "dark-red" )
     
     


Node: functions_, Next: , Previous: defined_, Up: palette

functions

Use `set palette functions <Rexpr>, <Gexpr>, <Bexpr>` to define three formulae for the R(gray), G(gray) and B(gray) mapping. The three formulae may depend on the variable `gray` which will take values in [0,1] and should also produce values in [0,1]. Please note that <Rexpr> might be a formula for the H-value if HSV color space has been chosen (same for all other formulae and color spaces).

Examples:

To produce a full color palette use:

           set palette model HSV functions gray, 1, 1
     
     

A nice black to gold palette:

           set palette model XYZ functions gray**0.35, gray**0.5, gray**0.8
     
     

A gamma-corrected black and white palette

           gamma = 2.2
           color(gray) = gray**(1./gamma)
           set palette model RGB functions color(gray), color(gray), color(gray)
     
     


Node: file, Next: , Previous: functions_, Up: palette

file

file is basically a `set palette defined (<gradient>)` where <gradient> is read from a datafile. Either 4 columns (gray,R,G,B) or just three columns (R,G,B) have to be selected via the using data file modifier. In the three column case, the line number will be used as gray. The gray range is automatically rescaled to [0,1]. The file is read as a normal data file, so all datafile modifiers can be used. Please note, that `R` might actually be e.g. `H` if HSV color space is selected.

As usual <filename> may be `'-'` which means that the data follow the command inline and are terminated by a single `e` on a line of its own.

Use `show palette gradient` to display the gradient.

Examples:

Read in a palette of RGB triples each in range [0,255]:

           set palette file 'some-palette' using ($1/255):($2/255):($3/255)
     
     

Equidistant rainbow (blue-green-yellow-red) palette:

           set palette model RGB file "-"
           0 0 1
           0 1 0
           1 1 0
           1 0 0
           e
     
     


Node: gamma-correction, Next: , Previous: file, Up: palette

gamma-correction

For gray mappings gamma correction can be turned on by `set palette gamma <gamma>`. <gamma> defaults to 1.5 which is quite suitable for most terminals.

For color mappings no automatic gamma correction is done by gnuplot. But you may easily implement gamma correction, here an example for a gray scale image by use of explicit functions for the red, green and blue component with slightly different values of gamma

Example:

           set palette model RGB
           set palette functions gray**0.64, gray**0.67, gray**0.70
     
     

To use gamma correction with interpolated gradients specify intermediate gray values with appropriate colors. Instead of

           set palette defined ( 0 0 0 0, 1 1 1 1 )
     
     

use e.g.

          set palette defined ( 0 0 0 0, 0.5 .73 .73 .73, 1 1 1 1 )
     
     

or even more intermediate points until the linear interpolation fits the "gamma corrected" interpolation well enough.


Node: postscript, Previous: gamma-correction, Up: palette

postscript

In order to reduce the size of postscript files, the gray value and not all three calculated r,g,b values are written to the file. Therefore the analytical formulae are coded directly in the postscript language as a header just before the pm3d drawing, see /g and /cF definitions. Usually, it makes sense to write therein definitions of only the 3 formulae used. But for multiplot or any other reason you may want to manually edit the transformations directly in the postscript file. This is the default option `nops_allcF`. Using the option `ps_allcF` writes postscript definitions of all formulae. This you may find interesting if you want to edit the postscript file in order to have different palettes for different surfaces in one graph. Well, you can achieve this functionality by multiplot with fixed origin and size.

If pm3d map has been plotted from gridded or almost regular data with an output to a postscript file, then it is possible to reduce the size of this postscript file up to at about 50% by the enclosed awk script `pm3dCompress.awk`. This you may find interesting if you intend to keep the file for including it into your publication or before downloading a very large file into a slow printer. Usage:

         awk -f pm3dCompress.awk thefile.ps >smallerfile.ps
     
     

If pm3d map has been plotted from rectangular gridded data with an output to a postscript file, then it is possible to reduce the file size even more by the enclosed awk script `pm3dConvertToImage.awk`. Usage:

         awk -f pm3dConvertToImage.awk <thefile.ps >smallerfile.ps
     
     

You may manually change the postscript output from gray to color and vice versa and change the definition of <maxcolors>.


Node: pointsize, Next: , Previous: palette, Up: set-show

pointsize

The pointsize command scales the size of the points used in plots.

Syntax:

           set pointsize <multiplier>
           show pointsize
     
     

The default is a multiplier of 1.0. Larger pointsizes may be useful to make points more visible in bitmapped graphics.

The pointsize of a single plot may be changed on the `plot` command. See with for details.

Please note that the pointsize setting is not supported by all terminal types.


Node: polar, Next: , Previous: pointsize, Up: set-show

polar

The `set polar` command changes the meaning of the plot from rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates.

Syntax:

           set polar
           unset polar
           show polar
     
     

There have been changes made to polar mode in version 3.7, so that scripts for `gnuplot` versions 3.5 and earlier will require modification. The main change is that the dummy variable t is used for the angle so that the x and y ranges can be controlled independently. Other changes are: 1) tics are no longer put along the zero axes automatically --use `set xtics axis nomirror`; `set ytics axis nomirror`; 2) the grid, if selected, is not automatically polar --use `set grid polar`; 3) the grid is not labelled with angles --use label as necessary.

In polar coordinates, the dummy variable (t) is an angle. The default range of t is [0:2*pi], or, if degree units have been selected, to [0:360] (see angles).

The command `unset polar` changes the meaning of the plot back to the default rectangular coordinate system.

The `set polar` command is not supported for `splot`s. See the mapping command for similar functionality for `splot`s.

While in polar coordinates the meaning of an expression in t is really r = f(t), where t is an angle of rotation. The trange controls the domain (the angle) of the function, and the x and y ranges control the range of the graph in the x and y directions. Each of these ranges, as well as the rrange, may be autoscaled or set explicitly. See xrange for details of all the ranges commands.

Example:

           set polar
           plot t*sin(t)
           plot [-2*pi:2*pi] [-3:3] [-3:3] t*sin(t)
     
     

The first `plot` uses the default polar angular domain of 0 to 2*pi. The radius and the size of the graph are scaled automatically. The second `plot` expands the domain, and restricts the size of the graph to [-3:3] in both directions.

You may want to `set size square` to have `gnuplot` try to make the aspect ratio equal to unity, so that circles look circular. See also polar demos (polar.dem) and polar data plot (poldat.dem).


Node: print_, Next: , Previous: polar, Up: set-show

print

The `set print` command redirects the output of the `print` command to a file.

Syntax:

           set print
           set print "-"
           set print "<filename>"
           set print "<filename>" append
           set print "|<shell_command>"
     
     

Without "<filename>", the output file is restored to <STDERR>. The <filename> "-" means <STDOUT>. The `append` flag causes the file to be opened in append mode. A <filename> starting with "|" is opened as a pipe to the <shell_command> on platforms that support piping.


Node: rmargin, Next: , Previous: print_, Up: set-show

rmargin

The command rmargin sets the size of the right margin. Please see margin for details.


Node: rrange, Next: , Previous: rmargin, Up: set-show

rrange

The rrange command sets the range of the radial coordinate for a graph in polar mode. Please see xrange for details.


Node: samples, Next: , Previous: rrange, Up: set-show

samples

The sampling rate of functions, or for interpolating data, may be changed by the samples command.

Syntax:

           set samples <samples_1> {,<samples_2>}
           show samples
     
     

By default, sampling is set to 100 points. A higher sampling rate will produce more accurate plots, but will take longer. This parameter has no effect on data file plotting unless one of the interpolation/approximation options is used. See smooth re 2-d data and cntrparam and dgrid3d re 3-d data.

When a 2-d graph is being done, only the value of <samples_1> is relevant.

When a surface plot is being done without the removal of hidden lines, the value of samples specifies the number of samples that are to be evaluated for the isolines. Each iso-v line will have <sample_1> samples and each iso-u line will have <sample_2> samples. If you only specify <samples_1>, <samples_2> will be set to the same value as <samples_1>. See also isosamples.


Node: size, Next: , Previous: samples, Up: set-show

size

The size command scales the displayed size of the plot.

Syntax:

           set size {{no}square | ratio <r> | noratio} {<xscale>,<yscale>}
           show size
     
     

The <xscale> and <yscale> values are the scaling factors for the size of the plot, which includes the graph and the margins.

`ratio` causes `gnuplot` to try to create a graph with an aspect ratio of <r> (the ratio of the y-axis length to the x-axis length) within the portion of the plot specified by <xscale> and <yscale>.

The meaning of a negative value for <r> is different. If <r>=-1, gnuplot tries to set the scales so that the unit has the same length on both the x and y axes (suitable for geographical data, for instance). If <r>=-2, the unit on y has twice the length of the unit on x, and so on.

The success of `gnuplot` in producing the requested aspect ratio depends on the terminal selected. The graph area will be the largest rectangle of aspect ratio <r> that will fit into the specified portion of the output (leaving adequate margins, of course).

`square` is a synonym for `ratio 1`.

Both `noratio` and `nosquare` return the graph to the default aspect ratio of the terminal, but do not return <xscale> or <yscale> to their default values (1.0).

`ratio` and `square` have no effect on 3-d plots. size is relative to the default size, which differs from terminal to terminal. Since `gnuplot` fills as much of the available plotting area as possible by default, it is safer to use size to decrease the size of a plot than to increase it. See terminal for the default sizes.

On some terminals, changing the size of the plot will result in text being misplaced.

Examples:

To set the size to normal size use:

           set size 1,1
     
     

To make the graph half size and square use:

           set size square 0.5,0.5
     
     

To make the graph twice as high as wide use:

           set size ratio 2
     
     

See also airfoil demo.


Node: style, Next: , Previous: size, Up: set-show

style

^ <a name="set style <style>"></a> Default plotting styles are chosen with the `set style data` and `set style function` commands. See with for information about how to override the default plotting style for individual functions and data sets. See `plotting styles` for a complete list of styles.

Syntax:

           set style function <style>
           set style data <style>
           show style function
           show style data
     
     

Default styles for specific plotting elements may also be set.

Syntax:

           set style arrow <n> <arrowstyle>
           set style fill <fillstyle>
           set style line <n> <linestyle>
     
     


Node: set_style_arrow, Next: , Previous: style, Up: style

set style arrow

^ <a name="arrowtype"></a> ^ <a name="arrowwidth"></a> Each terminal has a default set of arrow and point types, which can be seen by using the command test. arrow defines a set of arrow types and widths and point types and sizes so that you can refer to them later by an index instead of repeating all the information at each invocation.

Syntax:

           set style arrow <index> {nohead | head | heads}
                                   {size <length>,<angle>{,<backangle>}}
                                   {filled | empty | nofilled}
                                   {front | back}
                                   { {linestyle | ls <line_style>}
                                     | {linetype | lt <line_type>}
                                       {linewidth | lw <line_width} }
           unset style arrow
           show style arrow
     
     

<index> is an integer that identifies the arrowstyle.

Specifying `nohead` produces arrows drawn without a head--a line segment. This gives you yet another way to draw a line segment on the plot. By default, arrows have one head. Specifying `heads` draws arrow heads on both ends of the line.

Head size can be controlled by `size <length>,<angle>` or `size <length>,<angle>,<backangle>` where `<length>` defines length of each branch of the arrow head and `<angle>` the angle (in degrees) they make with the arrow. `<Length>` is in x-axis units; this can be changed by `first`, `second`, `graph` or `screen` before the `<length>`; see `coordinates` for details. `<Backangle>` only takes effect when `filled` or `empty` is also used. Then, `<backangle>` is the angle (in degrees) the back branches make with the arrow (in the same direction as `<angle>`). The `fig` terminal has a restricted backangle function. It supports three different angles. There are two thresholds: Below 70 degrees, the arrow head gets an indented back angle. Above 110 degrees, the arrow head has an acute back angle. Between these thresholds, the back line is straight.

Specifying `filled` produces filled arrow heads (if heads are used). Filling is supported on filled-polygon capable terminals, see help of pm3d for their list, otherwise the arrow heads are closed but not filled. The same result (closed but not filled arrow head) is reached by specifying `empty`. Further, filling and outline is obviously not supported on terminals drawing arrows by their own specific routines, like `metafont`, `metapost`, `latex` or `tgif`.

The line style may be selected from a user-defined list of line styles (see `set style line`) or may be defined here by providing values for `<line_type>` (an index from the default list of styles) and/or `<line_width>` (which is a multiplier for the default width).

Note, however, that if a user-defined line style has been selected, its properties (type and width) cannot be altered merely by issuing another arrow command with the appropriate index and `lt` or `lw`.

If `front` is given, the arrows are written on top of the graphed data. If `back` is given (the default), the arrow is written underneath the graphed data. Using `front` will prevent a arrow from being obscured by dense data.

Examples:

To draw an arrow without an arrow head and double width, use:

           set style arrow 1 nohead lw 2
           set arrow arrowstyle 1
     
     
      See also arrow for further examples.
     
     


Node: set_style_data, Next: , Previous: set_style_arrow, Up: style

set style data

The `set style data` command changes the default plotting style for data plots.

Syntax:

           set style data <plotting-style>
           show style data
     
     

See `plotting styles` for the choices. If no choice is given, the choices are listed. `show style data` shows the current default data plotting style.


Node: set_style_fill, Next: , Previous: set_style_data, Up: style

set style fill

The `set style fill` command is used to set the style of boxes or candlesticks.

Syntax:

           set style fill {empty | solid {<density>} | pattern {<n>}}
                          {border {<linetype>} | noborder}
     
     

The default fillstyle is `empty`.

The `solid` option causes filling with a solid color, if the terminal supports that. The <density> parameter specifies the intensity of the fill color. At a <density> of 0.0, the box is empty, at <density> of 1.0, the inner area is of the same color as the current linetype. Some terminal types can vary the density continuously; others implement only a few levels of partial fill. If no <density> parameter is given, it defaults to 1.

The `pattern` option causes filling to be done with a fill pattern supplied by the terminal driver. The kind and number of available fill patterns depend on the terminal driver. If multiple datasets using filled boxes are plotted, the pattern cycles through all available pattern types, starting from pattern <n>, much as the line type cycles for multiple line plots.

The `empty` option causes filled boxes not to be filled. This is the default. It is equivalent to the `solid` option with a <density> parameter of zero.

By default, border, the box is bounded by a solid line of the current linetype. `border <lt>` specifies that a border is to be drawn using linetype <lt>. `noborder` specifies that no bounding lines are drawn.


Node: set_style_function, Next: , Previous: set_style_fill, Up: style

set style function

The `set style function` command changes the default plotting style for function plots.

Syntax:

           set style function <plotting-style>
           show style function
     
     

See `plotting styles` for the choices. If no choice is given, the choices are listed. `show style function` shows the current default function plotting style.


Node: set_style_line, Next: , Previous: set_style_function, Up: style

set style line

^ <a name="linetype"></a> ^ <a name="linewidth"></a> Each terminal has a default set of line and point types, which can be seen by using the command test. `set style line` defines a set of line types and widths and point types and sizes so that you can refer to them later by an index instead of repeating all the information at each invocation.

Syntax:

           set style line <index> {linetype  | lt <line_type>}
                                  {linewidth | lw <line_width>}
                                  {pointtype | pt <point_type>}
                                  {pointsize | ps <point_size>}
                                  {palette}
           unset style line
           show style line
     
     

The line and point types are taken from the default types for the terminal currently in use. The line width and point size are multipliers for the default width and size (but note that <point_size> here is unaffected by the multiplier given on pointsize).

The defaults for the line and point types is the index. The defaults for the width and size are both unity.

Linestyles created by this mechanism do not replace the default styles; both may be used.

Not all terminals support the `linewidth` and pointsize features; if not supported, the option will be ignored.

Note that this feature is not completely implemented; linestyles defined by this mechanism may be used with `plot`, `splot`, replot, and arrow, but not by other commands that allow the default index to be used, such as `set grid`.

If gnuplot was built with pm3d support, the special keyword palette is allowed as `linetype` for splots (the 2d `plot` command ignores palette). In this case the line color is chosen from a smooth palette which was set previously with the command palette. The color value corresponds to the z-value (elevation) of the splot.

Example: Suppose that the default lines for indices 1, 2, and 3 are red, green, and blue, respectively, and the default point shapes for the same indices are a square, a cross, and a triangle, respectively. Then

           set style line 1 lt 2 lw 2 pt 3 ps 0.5
     
     

defines a new linestyle that is green and twice the default width and a new pointstyle that is a half-sized triangle. The commands

           set style function lines
           plot f(x) lt 3, g(x) ls 1
     
     

will create a plot of f(x) using the default blue line and a plot of g(x) using the user-defined wide green line. Similarly the commands

           set style function linespoints
           plot p(x) lt 1 pt 3, q(x) ls 1
     
     

will create a plot of p(x) using the default triangles connected by a red line and q(x) using small triangles connected by a green line.

           splot sin(sqrt(x*x+y*y))/sqrt(x*x+y*y) w l pal
     
     

creates a surface plot using smooth colors according to palette. Note, that this works only on some terminals.

See also palette, pm3d.


Node: plotting_styles, Previous: set_style_line, Up: style

plotting styles

The commands `set style data` and `set style function` change the default plotting style for subsequent `plot` and `splot` commands.

The types used for all line and point styles (i.e., solid, dash-dot, color, etc. for lines; circles, squares, crosses, etc. for points) will be either those specified on the `plot` or `splot` command or will be chosen sequentially from the types available to the terminal in use. Use the command test to see what is available.

None of the styles requiring more than two columns of information (e.g., errorbars or errorlines) can be used with `splot`s or function `plot`s. Neither `boxes`, `filledcurves` nor any of the `steps` styles can be used with `splot`s. If an inappropriate style is specified, it will be changed to `points`.

For 2-d data with more than two columns, `gnuplot` is picky about the allowed errorbars and errorlines styles. The using option on the `plot` command can be used to set up the correct columns for the style you want. (In this discussion, "column" will be used to refer both to a column in the data file and an entry in the using list.)

For three columns, only `xerrorbars`, `yerrorbars` (or errorbars), `xerrorlines`, `yerrorlines` (or errorlines), `boxes` and `boxerrorbars` are allowed. If another plot style is used, the style will be changed to `yerrorbars`. The `boxerrorbars` style will calculate the boxwidth automatically.

For four columns, only `xerrorbars`, `yerrorbars` (or errorbars), `xyerrorbars`, `xerrorlines`, `yerrorlines` (or errorlines), `xyerrorlines`, `boxxyerrorbars`, and `boxerrorbars` are allowed. An illegal style will be changed to `yerrorbars`.

Five-column data allow only the `boxerrorbars`, `financebars`, and `candlesticks` styles. An illegal style will be changed to `boxerrorbars` before plotting.

Six- and seven-column data only allow the `xyerrorbars`, `xyerrorlines`, and `boxxyerrorbars` styles. Illegal styles will be changed to `xyerrorbars` before plotting.

For more information about error bars with and without lines, please see errorlines and errorbars.

-- BOXERRORBARS --

The `boxerrorbars` style is only relevant to 2-d data plotting. It is a combination of the `boxes` and `yerrorbars` styles. The boxwidth will come from the fourth column if the y errors are in the form of "ydelta" and the boxwidth was not previously set equal to -2.0 (`set boxwidth -2.0`) or from the fifth column if the y errors are in the form of "ylow yhigh". The special case `boxwidth = -2.0` is for four-column data with y errors in the form "ylow yhigh". In this case the boxwidth will be calculated so that each box touches the adjacent boxes. The width will also be calculated in cases where three-column data are used.

The box height is determined from the y error in the same way as it is for the `yerrorbars` style--either from y-ydelta to y+ydelta or from ylow to yhigh, depending on how many data columns are provided. See also errorbar demo.

-- BOXES --

The `boxes` style is only relevant to 2-d plotting. It draws a box centered about the given x coordinate from the x axis (not the graph border) to the given y coordinate. The width of the box is obtained in one of three ways. If it is a data plot and the data file has a third column, this will be used to set the width of the box. If not, if a width has been set using the boxwidth command, this will be used. If neither of these is available, the width of each box will be calculated automatically so that it touches the adjacent boxes.

The interior of the boxes is drawn according to the current fillstyle. See `set style fill` for details. Alternatively a new fillstyle may be specified in the plot command.

For fillstyle `empty` the box is filled with the background color.

For fillstyle `solid` the box is filled with a solid rectangle of the current drawing color. There is an optional parameter <density> that controls the fill density; it runs from 0 (background color) to 1 (current drawing color).

For fillstyle `pattern` the box is filled in the current drawing color with a pattern, if supported by the terminal driver.

Examples:

To plot a data file with solid filled boxes with a small vertical space separating them (bargraph):

           set boxwidth 0.9 relative
           set style fill solid 1.0
           plot 'file.dat' with boxes
     
     

To plot a sine and a cosine curve in pattern-filled boxes style:

           set style fill pattern
           plot sin(x) with boxes, cos(x) with boxes
     
     

The sin plot will use pattern 0; the cos plot will use pattern 1. Any additional plots would cycle through the patterns supported by the terminal driver.

To specify explicit fillstyles for each dataset:

          plot 'file1' with boxes fs solid 0.25, \
               'file2' with boxes fs solid 0.50, \
               'file3' with boxes fs solid 0.75, \
               'file4' with boxes fill pattern 1, \
               'file5' with boxes fill empty
     
     

Currently only the following terminal drivers support fillstyles other than `empty`: x11, windows, pm, postscript, fig, pbm, png, gif, hpdj, hppj, hpljii, hp500c, jpeg, nec_cp6, epson_180dpi, epson_60dpi, epson_lx800, okidata, starc and tandy_60dpi. The BeOS driver (`be`) is untested.

-- FILLEDCURVES --

The `filledcurves` style is only relevant to 2-d plotting. It draws either the current curve closed and filled, or the region between the current curve and a given axis, horizontal or vertical line, or a point, filled with the current drawing color.

Syntax:

         set style [data | function] filledcurves [option]
         plot ... with filledcurves [option]
     
     

where the option can be

         [closed | {x1 | x2 | y1 | y2}[=<a>] | xy=<x>,<y>]
     
     

The area is filled between the current curve and

         filledcurves closed   ... just filled closed curve,
         filledcurves x1       ... x1 axis,
         filledcurves x2       ... x2 axis, etc for y1 and y2 axes,
         filledcurves y1=0     ... line y=0 (at y1 axis) ie parallel to x1 axis,
         filledcurves y2=42    ... line y=42 (at y2 axis) ie parallel to x2, etc,
         filledcurves xy=10,20 ... point 10,20 of x1,y1 axes (arc-like shape).
     
     

Note: filling is supported on filled-polygon capable terminals, see help of pm3d for their list.

Zoom of a filled curve drawn from a datafile may produce empty or incorrect area because gnuplot is clipping points and lines, and not areas.

If the values of <a>, <x>, <y> are out of the drawing boundary, then they are moved to the graph boundary. Then the actually filled area in the case of option xy=<x>,<y> will depend on xrange and yrange.

-- BOXXYERRORBARS --

The `boxxyerrorbars` style is only relevant to 2-d data plotting. It is a combination of the `boxes` and `xyerrorbars` styles.

The box width and height are determined from the x and y errors in the same way as they are for the `xyerrorbars` style--either from xlow to xhigh and from ylow to yhigh, or from x-xdelta to x+xdelta and from y-ydelta to y+ydelta , depending on how many data columns are provided.

If filled-box support is present, then the interior of the boxes is drawn according to the current fillstyle. See `set style fill` and `boxes` for details. Alternatively a new fillstyle may be specified in the plot command.

-- CANDLESTICKS --

The `candlesticks` style can be used for 2-d data plotting of financial data or for generating box-and-whisker plots of statistical data. Five columns of data are required; in order, these should be the x coordinate (most likely a date) and the opening, low, high, and closing prices. The symbol is a rectangular box, centered horizontally at the x coordinate and limited vertically by the opening and closing prices. A vertical line segment at the x coordinate extends up from the top of the rectangle to the high price and another down to the low. The vertical line will be unchanged if the low and high prices are interchanged.

The width of the rectangle can be controlled by the boxwidth command. For backwards compatibility with earlier gnuplot versions, when the boxwidth parameter has not been set then the width of the candlestick rectangle is controlled by `set bars <width>`.

By default the rectangle is empty if (open > close), and filled with three vertical bars if (close > open). If filled-boxes support is present, then the rectangle is colored according to `set style fill <fillstyle>`. See bars and `financebars`. See also finance demos.

Note: To place additional symbols, such as the median value, on a box-and-whisker plot requires additional plot commands as in this example:

       # Data columns: X Min 1stQuartile Median 3rdQuartile Max
       set bars 4.0
       set style fill empty
       plot 'stat.dat' using 1:3:2:6:5 with candlesticks title 'Quartiles', \
            ''         using 1:4:4:4:4 with candlesticks lt -1 notitle
     
     
      See boxwidth, bars and `set style fill`.
     
     

-- DOTS --

The `dots` style plots a tiny dot at each point; this is useful for scatter plots with many points.

-- FINANCEBARS --

The `financebars` style is only relevant for 2-d data plotting of financial data. Five columns of data are required; in order, these should be the x coordinate (most likely a date) and the opening, low, high, and closing prices. The symbol is a vertical line segment, located horizontally at the x coordinate and limited vertically by the high and low prices. A horizontal tic on the left marks the opening price and one on the right marks the closing price. The length of these tics may be changed by bars. The symbol will be unchanged if the high and low prices are interchanged. See bars and `candlesticks`, and also the finance demo.

-- FSTEPS --

The `fsteps` style is only relevant to 2-d plotting. It connects consecutive points with two line segments: the first from (x1,y1) to (x1,y2) and the second from (x1,y2) to (x2,y2). See also steps demo.

-- HISTEPS --

The `histeps` style is only relevant to 2-d plotting. It is intended for plotting histograms. Y-values are assumed to be centered at the x-values; the point at x1 is represented as a horizontal line from ((x0+x1)/2,y1) to ((x1+x2)/2,y1). The lines representing the end points are extended so that the step is centered on at x. Adjacent points are connected by a vertical line at their average x, that is, from ((x1+x2)/2,y1) to ((x1+x2)/2,y2).

If autoscale is in effect, it selects the xrange from the data rather than the steps, so the end points will appear only half as wide as the others. See also steps demo.

`histeps` is only a plotting style; `gnuplot` does not have the ability to create bins and determine their population from some data set.

-- IMPULSES --

The `impulses` style displays a vertical line from the x axis (not the graph border), or from the grid base for `splot`, to each point.

-- LINES --

The `lines` style connects adjacent points with straight line segments. See also `linetype`, `linewidth`, and `linestyle`.

-- LINESPOINTS --

The `linespoints` style does both `lines` and `points`, that is, it draws a small symbol at each point and then connects adjacent points with straight line segments. The command pointsize may be used to change the size of the points. See pointsize for its usage.

`linespoints` may be abbreviated `lp`.

-- POINTS --

The `points` style displays a small symbol at each point. The command pointsize may be used to change the size of the points. See pointsize for its usage.

-- STEPS --

The `steps` style is only relevant to 2-d plotting. It connects consecutive points with two line segments: the first from (x1,y1) to (x2,y1) and the second from (x2,y1) to (x2,y2). See also steps demo.

-- VECTORS --

The `vectors` style draws a vector from (x,y) to (x+xdelta,y+ydelta). Thus it requires four columns of data. It also draws a small arrowhead at the end of the vector.

Example:

           plot 'file.dat' using 1:2:3:4 with vectors head filled lt 2
     
     

`set clip one` and `set clip two` affect drawing vectors. Please see clip and `arrowstyle`.

-- XERRORBARS --

The `xerrorbars` style is only relevant to 2-d data plots. `xerrorbars` is like `dots`, except that a horizontal error bar is also drawn. At each point (x,y), a line is drawn from (xlow,y) to (xhigh,y) or from (x-xdelta,y) to (x+xdelta,y), depending on how many data columns are provided. A tic mark is placed at the ends of the error bar (unless bars is used--see bars for details).

-- XYERRORBARS --

The `xyerrorbars` style is only relevant to 2-d data plots. `xyerrorbars` is like `dots`, except that horizontal and vertical error bars are also drawn. At each point (x,y), lines are drawn from (x,y-ydelta) to (x,y+ydelta) and from (x-xdelta,y) to (x+xdelta,y) or from (x,ylow) to (x,yhigh) and from (xlow,y) to (xhigh,y), depending upon the number of data columns provided. A tic mark is placed at the ends of the error bar (unless bars is used--see bars for details).

If data are provided in an unsupported mixed form, the using filter on the `plot` command should be used to set up the appropriate form. For example, if the data are of the form (x,y,xdelta,ylow,yhigh), then you can use

           plot 'data' using 1:2:($1-$3):($1+$3):4:5 with xyerrorbars
     
     

-- YERRORBARS --

The `yerrorbars` (or errorbars) style is only relevant to 2-d data plots. `yerrorbars` is like `points`, except that a vertical error bar is also drawn. At each point (x,y), a line is drawn from (x,y-ydelta) to (x,y+ydelta) or from (x,ylow) to (x,yhigh), depending on how many data columns are provided. A tic mark is placed at the ends of the error bar (unless bars is used--see bars for details). See also errorbar demo.

-- XERRORLINES --

The `xerrorlines` style is only relevant to 2-d data plots. `xerrorlines` is like `linespoints`, except that a horizontal error line is also drawn. At each point (x,y), a line is drawn from (xlow,y) to (xhigh,y) or from (x-xdelta,y) to (x+xdelta,y), depending on how many data columns are provided. A tic mark is placed at the ends of the error bar (unless bars is used--see bars for details).

-- XYERRORLINES --

The `xyerrorlines` style is only relevant to 2-d data plots. `xyerrorlines` is like `linespoints`, except that horizontal and vertical error bars are also drawn. At each point (x,y), lines are drawn from (x,y-ydelta) to (x,y+ydelta) and from (x-xdelta,y) to (x+xdelta,y) or from (x,ylow) to (x,yhigh) and from (xlow,y) to (xhigh,y), depending upon the number of data columns provided. A tic mark is placed at the ends of the error bar (unless bars is used--see bars for details).

If data are provided in an unsupported mixed form, the using filter on the `plot` command should be used to set up the appropriate form. For example, if the data are of the form (x,y,xdelta,ylow,yhigh), then you can use

           plot 'data' using 1:2:($1-$3):($1+$3):4:5 with xyerrorlines
     
     

-- YERRORLINES --

The `yerrorlines` (or errorlines) style is only relevant to 2-d data plots. `yerrorlines` is like `linespoints`, except that a vertical error line is also drawn. At each point (x,y), a line is drawn from (x,y-ydelta) to (x,y+ydelta) or from (x,ylow) to (x,yhigh), depending on how many data columns are provided. A tic mark is placed at the ends of the error bar (unless bars is used--see bars for details). See also errorbar demo.


Node: surface, Next: , Previous: style, Up: set-show

surface

The command surface controls the display of surfaces by `splot`.

Syntax:

           set surface
           unset surface
           show surface
     
     

The surface is drawn with the style specified by with, or else the appropriate style, data or function.

Whenever surface is issued, `splot` will not draw points or lines corresponding to the function or data file points. Contours may still be drawn on the surface, depending on the contour option. `unset surface; set contour base` is useful for displaying contours on the grid base. See also contour.


Node: terminal, Next: , Previous: surface, Up: set-show

terminal

`gnuplot` supports many different graphics devices. Use terminal to tell `gnuplot` what kind of output to generate. Use output to redirect that output to a file or device.

Syntax:

           set terminal {<terminal-type> | push | pop}
           show terminal
     
     

If <terminal-type> is omitted, `gnuplot` will list the available terminal types. <terminal-type> may be abbreviated.

If both terminal and output are used together, it is safest to give terminal first, because some terminals set a flag which is needed in some operating systems.

Several terminals have additional options. For example, see `dumb`, `iris4d`, `hpljii` or postscript. The options used by a previous invocation `set term <term> <options>` of a given `<term>` are remembered, thus subsequent `set term <term>` does not reset them. This helps in printing, for instance, when switching among different terminals--previous options don't have to be repeated.

The command `set term push` remembers the current terminal including its settings while `set term pop` restores it. This is equivalent to `save term` and `load term`, but without accessing the filesystem. Therefore they can be used to achieve platform independent restoring of the terminal after printing, for instance. After gnuplot's startup, the default terminal or that from `startup` file is pushed automatically. Therefore portable scripts can rely that `set term pop` restores the default terminal on a given platform unless another terminal has been pushed explicitly.

This document may describe drivers that are not available to you because they were not installed, or it may not describe all the drivers that are available to you, depending on its output format. @c <4 - all terminal stuff is pulled from the .trm files


Node: aed767, Next: , Previous: terminal, Up: terminal

aed767

The `aed512` and `aed767` terminal drivers support AED graphics terminals. The two drivers differ only in their horizontal ranges, which are 512 and 768 pixels, respectively. Their vertical range is 575 pixels. There are no options for these drivers."


Node: aifm, Next: , Previous: aed767, Up: terminal

aifm

Several options may be set in `aifm`--the Adobe Illustrator 3.0+ driver.

Syntax:

           set terminal aifm {<color>} {"<fontname>"} {<fontsize>}
     
     

<color> is either `color` or `monochrome`; "<fontname>" is the name of a valid PostScript font; <fontsize> is the size of the font in PostScript points, before scaling by the size command. Selecting `default` sets all options to their default values: `monochrome`, "Times-Roman", and 14pt.

Since AI does not really support multiple pages, multiple graphs will be drawn directly on top of one another. However, each graph will be grouped individually, making it easy to separate them inside AI (just pick them up and move them).

Examples:

           set term aifm
           set term aifm 22
           set size 0.7,1.4; set term aifm color "Times-Roman" 14"
     
     


Node: amiga, Next: , Previous: aifm, Up: terminal

amiga

The `amiga` terminal, for Commodore Amiga computers, allows the user to plot either to a screen (default), or, if Kickstart 3.0 or higher is installed, to a window on the current public screen. The font and its size can also be selected.

Syntax:

           set terminal amiga {screen | window} {"<fontname>"} {<fontsize>}
     
     

The default font is 8-point "topaz".

The screen option uses a virtual screen, so it is possible that the graph will be larger than the screen."


Node: apollo, Next: , Previous: amiga, Up: terminal

apollo

The `apollo` terminal driver supports the Apollo Graphics Primitive Resource with rescaling after window resizing. It has no options.

If a fixed-size window is desired, the `gpr` terminal may be used instead."


Node: aqua, Next: , Previous: apollo, Up: terminal

aqua

This terminal relies on AquaTerm.app for display on Mac OS X.

Syntax:

           set terminal aqua {<n>} {title "<wintitle>"} {size <x> <y>}
                             {fname "<fontface>"} {fsize <fontsize>}
     
     

where <n> is the number of the window to draw in (default is 0), <wintitle> is the name shown in the title bar (default "Figure <n>"), <x> <y> is the size of the plot (default is 846x594 pt = 11.75x8.25 in).

Use <fontface> to specify the font to use (default is "Times-Roman"), <fontzise> sets the font size (default is 14.0 pt)."


Node: atari_ST_(via_AES), Next: , Previous: aqua, Up: terminal

atari ST (via AES)

The `atari` terminal has options to set the character size and the screen colors.

Syntax:

           set terminal atari {<fontsize>} {<col0> <col1> ... <col15>}
     
     

The character size must appear if any colors are to be specified. Each of the (up to 16) colors is given as a three-digit hex number, where the digits represent RED, GREEN and BLUE (in that order). The range of 0-15 is scaled to whatever color range the screen actually has. On a normal ST screen, odd and even intensities are the same.

Examples:

           set terminal atari 4    # use small (6x6) font
           set terminal atari 6 0  # set monochrome screen to white on black
           set terminal atari 13 0 fff f00 f0 f ff f0f
                      # set first seven colors to black, white, red, green,
                      # blue, cyan, and purple and use large font (8x16).
     
     

Additionally, if an environment variable GNUCOLORS exists, its contents are interpreted as an options string, but an explicit terminal option takes precedence."


Node: atari_ST_(via_VDI), Next: , Previous: atari_ST_(via_AES), Up: terminal

atari ST (via VDI)

The `vdi` terminal is the same as the `atari` terminal, except that it sends output to the screen via the VDI and not into AES-Windows.

The `vdi` terminal has options to set the character size and the screen colors.

Syntax:

           set terminal vdi {<fontsize>} {<col0> <col1> ... <col15>}
     
     

The character size must appear if any colors are to be specified. Each of the (up to 16) colors is given as a three-digit hex number, where the digits represent RED, GREEN and BLUE (in that order). The range of 0-15 is scaled to whatever color range the screen actually has. On a normal ST screen, odd and even intensities are the same.

Examples:

           set terminal vdi 4    # use small (6x6) font
           set terminal vdi 6 0  # set monochrome screen to white on black
           set terminal vdi 13 0 fff f00 f0 f ff f0f
                      # set first seven colors to black, white, red, green,
                      # blue, cyan, and purple and use large font (8x16).
     
     

Additionally, if an environment variable GNUCOLORS exists, its contents are interpreted as an options string, but an explicit terminal option takes precedence."


Node: be, Next: , Previous: atari_ST_(via_VDI), Up: terminal

be

`gnuplot` provides the `be` terminal type for use with X servers. This terminal type is set automatically at startup if the `DISPLAY` environment variable is set, if the `TERM` environment variable is set to `xterm`, or if the `-display` command line option is used.

Syntax:

               set terminal be {reset} {<n>}
     
     

Multiple plot windows are supported: `set terminal be <n>` directs the output to plot window number n. If n>0, the terminal number will be appended to the window title and the icon will be labeled `gplt <n>`. The active window may distinguished by a change in cursor (from default to crosshair.)

Plot windows remain open even when the `gnuplot` driver is changed to a different device. A plot window can be closed by pressing the letter q while that window has input focus, or by choosing `close` from a window manager menu. All plot windows can be closed by specifying reset, which actually terminates the subprocess which maintains the windows (unless `-persist` was specified).

Plot windows will automatically be closed at the end of the session unless the `-persist` option was given.

The size or aspect ratio of a plot may be changed by resizing the `gnuplot` window.

Linewidths and pointsizes may be changed from within `gnuplot` with `set linestyle`.

For terminal type `be`, `gnuplot` accepts (when initialized) the standard X Toolkit options and resources such as geometry, font, and name from the command line arguments or a configuration file. See the X(1) man page (or its equivalent) for a description of such options.

A number of other `gnuplot` options are available for the `be` terminal. These may be specified either as command-line options when `gnuplot` is invoked or as resources in the configuration file ".Xdefaults". They are set upon initialization and cannot be altered during a `gnuplot` session.

-- COMMAND-LINE_OPTIONS --

In addition to the X Toolkit options, the following options may be specified on the command line when starting `gnuplot` or as resources in your ".Xdefaults" file:

      `-mono`        forces monochrome rendering on color displays.
      `-gray`        requests grayscale rendering on grayscale or color displays.
                             (Grayscale displays receive monochrome rendering by default.)
      `-clear`   requests that the window be cleared momentarily before a
                             new plot is displayed.
      `-raise`   raises plot window after each plot
      `-noraise` does not raise plot window after each plot
      `-persist` plots windows survive after main gnuplot program exits
     
     

The options are shown above in their command-line syntax. When entered as resources in ".Xdefaults", they require a different syntax.

Example:

               gnuplot*gray: on
     
     

`gnuplot` also provides a command line option (`-pointsize <v>`) and a resource, `gnuplot*pointsize: <v>`, to control the size of points plotted with the `points` plotting style. The value `v` is a real number (greater than 0 and less than or equal to ten) used as a scaling factor for point sizes. For example, `-pointsize 2` uses points twice the default size, and `-pointsize 0.5` uses points half the normal size.

-- MONOCHROME_OPTIONS --

For monochrome displays, `gnuplot` does not honor foreground or background colors. The default is black-on-white. `-rv` or `gnuplot*reverseVideo: on` requests white-on-black.

-- COLOR_RESOURCES --

For color displays, `gnuplot` honors the following resources (shown here with their default values) or the greyscale resources. The values may be color names as listed in the BE rgb.txt file on your system, hexadecimal RGB color specifications (see BE documentation), or a color name followed by a comma and an `intensity` value from 0 to 1. For example, `blue, 0.5` means a half intensity blue.

      gnuplot*background:  white
      gnuplot*textColor:   black
      gnuplot*borderColor: black
      gnuplot*axisColor:   black
      gnuplot*line1Color:  red
      gnuplot*line2Color:  green
      gnuplot*line3Color:  blue
      gnuplot*line4Color:  magenta
      gnuplot*line5Color:  cyan
      gnuplot*line6Color:  sienna
      gnuplot*line7Color:  orange
      gnuplot*line8Color:  coral
     
     

The command-line syntax for these is, for example,

Example:

               gnuplot -background coral
     
     

-- GRAYSCALE_RESOURCES --

When `-gray` is selected, `gnuplot` honors the following resources for grayscale or color displays (shown here with their default values). Note that the default background is black.

      gnuplot*background: black
      gnuplot*textGray:   white
      gnuplot*borderGray: gray50
      gnuplot*axisGray:   gray50
      gnuplot*line1Gray:  gray100
      gnuplot*line2Gray:  gray60
      gnuplot*line3Gray:  gray80
      gnuplot*line4Gray:  gray40
      gnuplot*line5Gray:  gray90
      gnuplot*line6Gray:  gray50
      gnuplot*line7Gray:  gray70
      gnuplot*line8Gray:  gray30
     
     

-- LINE_RESOURCES --

`gnuplot` honors the following resources for setting the width (in pixels) of plot lines (shown here with their default values.) 0 or 1 means a minimal width line of 1 pixel width. A value of 2 or 3 may improve the appearance of some plots.

      gnuplot*borderWidth: 2
      gnuplot*axisWidth:   0
      gnuplot*line1Width:  0
      gnuplot*line2Width:  0
      gnuplot*line3Width:  0
      gnuplot*line4Width:  0
      gnuplot*line5Width:  0
      gnuplot*line6Width:  0
      gnuplot*line7Width:  0
      gnuplot*line8Width:  0
     
     

`gnuplot` honors the following resources for setting the dash style used for plotting lines. 0 means a solid line. A two-digit number `jk` (`j` and `k` are >= 1 and <= 9) means a dashed line with a repeated pattern of `j` pixels on followed by `k` pixels off. For example, '16' is a "dotted" line with one pixel on followed by six pixels off. More elaborate on/off patterns can be specified with a four-digit value. For example, '4441' is four on, four off, four on, one off. The default values shown below are for monochrome displays or monochrome rendering on color or grayscale displays. For color displays, the default for each is 0 (solid line) except for `axisDashes` which defaults to a '16' dotted line.

      gnuplot*borderDashes:   0
      gnuplot*axisDashes:        16
      gnuplot*line1Dashes:        0
      gnuplot*line2Dashes:   42
      gnuplot*line3Dashes:   13
      gnuplot*line4Dashes:   44
      gnuplot*line5Dashes:   15
      gnuplot*line6Dashes: 4441
      gnuplot*line7Dashes:   42
      gnuplot*line8Dashes:   13
     
     


Node: cgi, Next: , Previous: be, Up: terminal

cgi

The `cgi` and `hcgi` terminal drivers support SCO CGI drivers. `hcgi` is for printers; the environment variable CGIPRNT must be set. `cgi` may be used for either a display or hardcopy; if the environment variable CGIDISP is set, then that display is used. Otherwise CGIPRNT is used.

These terminals have no options."


Node: cgm, Next: , Previous: cgi, Up: terminal

cgm

The `cgm` terminal generates a Computer Graphics Metafile, Version 1. This file format is a subset of the ANSI X3.122-1986 standard entitled "Computer Graphics - Metafile for the Storage and Transfer of Picture Description Information". Several options may be set in `cgm`.

Syntax:

           set terminal cgm {<mode>} {<color>} {<rotation>} {solid | dashed}
                            {width <plot_width>} {linewidth <line_width>}
                            {"<font>"} {<fontsize>}
                            {<color0> <color1> <color2> ...}
     
     

where <mode> is `landscape`, `portrait`, or `default`; <color> is either `color` or `monochrome`; <rotation> is either `rotate` or `norotate`; `solid` draws all curves with solid lines, overriding any dashed patterns; <plot_width> is the assumed width of the plot in points; <line_width> is the line width in points (default 1); <font> is the name of a font; and <fontsize> is the size of the font in points (default 12).

By default, `cgm` uses rotated text for the Y axis label.

The first six options can be in any order. Selecting `default` sets all options to their default values.

Each color must be of the form 'xrrggbb', where x is the literal character 'x' and 'rrggbb' are the red, green and blue components in hex. For example, 'x00ff00' is green. The background color is set first, then the plotting colors."

Examples:

           set terminal cgm landscape color rotate dashed width 432 \\
                          linewidth 1  'Helvetica Bold' 12       # defaults
           set terminal cgm linewidth 2  14  # wider lines & larger font
           set terminal cgm portrait "Times Italic" 12
           set terminal cgm color solid      # no pesky dashes!
     
     

-- FONT --

The first part of a Computer Graphics Metafile, the metafile description, includes a font table. In the picture body, a font is designated by an index into this table. By default, this terminal generates a table with the following 35 fonts, plus six more with `italic` replaced by `oblique`, or vice-versa (since at least the Microsoft Office and Corel Draw CGM import filters treat `italic` and `oblique` as equivalent):

           Helvetica
           Helvetica Bold
           Helvetica Oblique
           Helvetica Bold Oblique
           Times Roman
           Times Bold
           Times Italic
           Times Bold Italic
           Courier
           Courier Bold
           Courier Oblique
           Courier Bold Oblique
           Symbol
           Hershey/Cartographic_Roman
           Hershey/Cartographic_Greek
           Hershey/Simplex_Roman
           Hershey/Simplex_Greek
           Hershey/Simplex_Script
           Hershey/Complex_Roman
           Hershey/Complex_Greek
           Hershey/Complex_Script
           Hershey/Complex_Italic
           Hershey/Complex_Cyrillic
           Hershey/Duplex_Roman
           Hershey/Triplex_Roman
           Hershey/Triplex_Italic
           Hershey/Gothic_German
           Hershey/Gothic_English
           Hershey/Gothic_Italian
           Hershey/Symbol_Set_1
           Hershey/Symbol_Set_2
           Hershey/Symbol_Math
           ZapfDingbats
           Script
           15
     
     

The first thirteen of these fonts are required for WebCGM. The Microsoft Office CGM import filter implements the 13 standard fonts listed above, and also 'ZapfDingbats' and 'Script'. However, the script font may only be accessed under the name '15'. For more on Microsoft import filter font substitutions, check its help file which you may find here:

       C:\\Program Files\\Microsoft Office\\Office\\Cgmimp32.hlp
     

and/or its configuration file, which you may find here:

       C:\\Program Files\\Common Files\\Microsoft Shared\\Grphflt\\Cgmimp32.cfg
     
     

In the `set term` command, you may specify a font name which does not appear in the default font table. In that case, a new font table is constructed with the specified font as its first entry. You must ensure that the spelling, capitalization, and spacing of the name are appropriate for the application that will read the CGM file. (Gnuplot and any MIL-D-28003A compliant application ignore case in font names.) If you need to add several new fonts, use several `set term` commands.

Example:

           set terminal cgm 'Old English'
           set terminal cgm 'Tengwar'
           set terminal cgm 'Arabic'
           set output 'myfile.cgm'
           plot ...
           set output
     
     

You cannot introduce a new font in a label command."

-- FONTSIZE --

Fonts are scaled assuming the page is 6 inches wide. If the size command is used to change the aspect ratio of the page or the CGM file is converted to a different width, the resulting font sizes will be scaled up or down accordingly. To change the assumed width, use the `width` option.

-- LINEWIDTH --

The `linewidth` option sets the width of lines in pt. The default width is 1 pt. Scaling is affected by the actual width of the page, as discussed under the `fontsize` and `width` options.

-- ROTATE --

The `norotate` option may be used to disable text rotation. For example, the CGM input filter for Word for Windows 6.0c can accept rotated text, but the DRAW editor within Word cannot. If you edit a graph (for example, to label a curve), all rotated text is restored to horizontal. The Y axis label will then extend beyond the clip boundary. With `norotate`, the Y axis label starts in a less attractive location, but the page can be edited without damage. The `rotate` option confirms the default behavior.

-- SOLID --

The `solid` option may be used to disable dashed line styles in the plots. This is useful when color is enabled and the dashing of the lines detracts from the appearance of the plot. The `dashed` option confirms the default behavior, which gives a different dash pattern to each curve.

-- SIZE --

Default size of a CGM plot is 32599 units wide and 23457 units high for landscape, or 23457 units wide by 32599 units high for portrait.

-- WIDTH --

All distances in the CGM file are in abstract units. The application that reads the file determines the size of the final plot. By default, the width of the final plot is assumed to be 6 inches (15.24 cm). This distance is used to calculate the correct font size, and may be changed with the `width` option. The keyword should be followed by the width in points. (Here, a point is 1/72 inch, as in PostScript. This unit is known as a "big point" in TeX.) Gnuplot `expressions` can be used to convert from other units.

Example:

           set terminal cgm width 432            # default
           set terminal cgm width 6*72           # same as above
           set terminal cgm width 10/2.54*72     # 10 cm wide
     
     

-- NOFONTLIST --

The default font table includes the fonts recommended for WebCGM, which are compatible with the Computer Graphics Metafile input filter for Microsoft Office and Corel Draw. Another application might use different fonts and/or different font names, which may not be documented. As a workaround, the `nofontlist` option deletes the font table from the CGM file. In this case, the reading application should use a default table. Gnuplot will still use its own default font table to select font indices. Thus, 'Helvetica' will give you an index of 1, which should get you the first entry in your application's default font table. 'Helvetica Bold' will give you its second entry, etc.

The former `winword6` option is now a deprecated synonym for `nofontlist`. The problems involving the color and font tables that the `winword6` option was intended to work around turned out to be gnuplot bugs which have now been fixed."


Node: corel, Next: , Previous: cgm, Up: terminal

corel

The `corel` terminal driver supports CorelDraw.

Syntax:

           set terminal corel {  default
                               | {monochrome | color
                                    {"<font>" {<fontsize>
                                       {<xsize> <ysize> {<linewidth> }}}}}
     
     

where the fontsize and linewidth are specified in points and the sizes in inches. The defaults are monochrome, "SwitzerlandLight", 22, 8.2, 10 and 1.2."


Node: debug, Next: , Previous: corel, Up: terminal

debug

This terminal is provided to allow for the debugging of `gnuplot`. It is likely to be of use only for users who are modifying the source code."


Node: svga, Next: , Previous: debug, Up: terminal

svga

The `svga` terminal driver supports PCs with SVGA graphics. It can only be used if it is compiled with DJGPP. Its only option is the font.

Syntax:

           set terminal svga {"<fontname>"}"
     
     


Node: dumb, Next: , Previous: svga, Up: terminal

dumb

The `dumb` terminal driver has an optional size specification and trailing linefeed control.

Syntax:

           set terminal dumb {[no]feed} {<xsize> <ysize>}
                             {[no]enhanced}
     
     

where <xsize> and <ysize> set the size of the dumb terminals. Default is 79 by 24. The last newline is printed only if `feed` is enabled.

Examples:

           set term dumb nofeed
           set term dumb 79 49 # VGA screen---why would anyone do that?"
     
     


Node: dxf, Next: , Previous: dumb, Up: terminal

dxf

The `dxf` terminal driver creates pictures that can be imported into AutoCad (Release 10.x). It has no options of its own, but some features of its plots may be modified by other means. The default size is 120x80 AutoCad units, which can be changed by size. `dxf` uses seven colors (white, red, yellow, green, cyan, blue and magenta), which can be changed only by modifying the source file. If a black-and-white plotting device is used, the colors are mapped to differing line thicknesses. See the description of the AutoCad print/plot command."


Node: dxy800a, Next: , Previous: dxf, Up: terminal

dxy800a

This terminal driver supports the Roland DXY800A plotter. It has no options."


Node: eepic, Next: , Previous: dxy800a, Up: terminal

eepic

The `eepic` terminal driver supports the extended LaTeX picture environment. It is an alternative to the `latex` driver.

The output of this terminal is intended for use with the "eepic.sty" macro package for LaTeX. To use it, you need "eepic.sty", "epic.sty" and a printer driver that supports the "tpic" \\specials. If your printer driver doesn't support those \\specials, "eepicemu.sty" will enable you to use some of them. dvips and dvipdfm do support the "tpic" \\specials.

Syntax:

        set terminal eepic {color, dashed, rotate, small, tiny, default, <fontsize>}
     
     

Options: You can give options in any order you wish. 'color' causes gnuplot to produce \\color{...} commands so that the graphs are colored. Using this option, you must include \\usepackage{color} in the preambel of your latex document. 'dashed' will allow dashed line types; without this option, only solid lines with varying thickness will be used. 'dashed' and 'color' are mutually exclusive; if 'color' is specified, then 'dashed' will be ignored. 'rotate' will enable true rotated text (by 90 degrees). Otherwise, rotated text will be typeset with letters stacked above each other. If you use this option you must include \\usepackage{graphicx} in the preamble. 'small' will use \\scriptsize symbols as point markers (Probably does not work with TeX, only LaTeX2e). Default is to use the default math size. 'tiny' uses \\scriptscriptstyle symbols. 'default' resets all options to their defaults = no color, no dashed lines, pseudo-rotated (stacked) text, large point symbols. <fontsize> is a number which specifies the font size inside the picture environment; the unit is pt (points), i.e., 10 pt equals approx. 3.5 mm. If fontsize is not specified, then all text inside the picture will be set in \\footnotesize.

Notes: Remember to escape the # character (or other chars meaningful to (La-)TeX) by \\\\ (2 backslashes). It seems that dashed lines become solid lines when the vertices of a plot are too close. (I do not know if that is a general problem with the tpic specials, or if it is caused by a bug in eepic.sty or dvips/dvipdfm.) The default size of an eepic plot is 5x3 inches, which can be scaled by 'set size a,b'. Points, among other things, are drawn using the LaTeX commands "\\Diamond", "\\Box", etc. These commands no longer belong to the LaTeX2e core; they are included in the latexsym package, which is part of the base distribution and thus part of any LaTeX implementation. Please do not forget to use this package. Instead of latexsym, you can also include the amssymb package." All drivers for LaTeX offer a special way of controlling text positioning: If any text string begins with '{', you also need to include a '}' at the end of the text, and the whole text will be centered both horizontally and vertically. If the text string begins with '[', you need to follow this with a position specification (up to two out of t,b,l,r), ']{', the text itself, and finally '}'. The text itself may be anything LaTeX can typeset as an LR-box. '\\rule{}{}'s may help for best positioning.

Examples: set term eepic

       output graphs as eepic macros inside a picture environment;
       \\input the resulting file in your LaTeX document.
     

set term eepic color tiny rotate 8

       eepic macros with \\color macros, \\scripscriptsize point markers,
       true rotated text, and all text set with 8pt.
     
     

About label positioning: Use gnuplot defaults (mostly sensible, but sometimes not really best):

            set title '\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $'
     

Force centering both horizontally and vertically:

            set label '{\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $}' at 0,0
     

Specify own positioning (top here):

            set xlabel '[t]{\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $}'
     

The other label - account for long ticlabels:

            set ylabel '[r]{\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $\\rule{7mm}{0pt}}'"
     
     


Node: emf, Next: , Previous: eepic, Up: terminal

emf

The `emf` terminal generates an Enhanced Metafile Format file. This file format is the metafile standard on MS Win32 Systems"

Syntax:

           set terminal emf {<color>} {solid | dashed}
                            {"<font>"} {<fontsize>}
     
     

<color> is either `color` or `monochrome`; `solid` draws all curves with solid lines, overriding any dashed patterns; <font> is the name of a font; and `<fontsize>` is the size of the font in points.

The first two options can be in any order. Selecting `default` sets all options to their default values.

Examples:

           set terminal emf 'Times Roman Italic' 12
           set terminal emf color solid    # no pesky dashes!"
     
     


Node: emxvga, Next: , Previous: emf, Up: terminal

emxvga

The `emxvga`, `emxvesa` and `vgal` terminal drivers support PCs with SVGA, vesa SVGA and VGA graphics boards, respectively. They are intended to be compiled with "emx-gcc" under either DOS or OS/2. They also need VESA and SVGAKIT maintained by Johannes Martin (JMARTIN@GOOFY.ZDV.UNI-MAINZ.DE) with additions by David J. Liu (liu@phri.nyu.edu).

Syntax:

           set terminal emxvga
           set terminal emxvesa {vesa-mode}
           set terminal vgal
     
     

The only option is the vesa mode for `emxvesa`, which defaults to G640x480x256."


Node: epslatex, Next: , Previous: emxvga, Up: terminal

epslatex

The `epslatex` driver generates output for further processing by LaTeX."

Syntax:

           set terminal epslatex {default}
                                   {color | monochrome} {solid | dashed}
                                   {"<fontname>"} {<fontsize>}
     
     

`default` mode sets all options to their defaults: `monochrome`, `dashed`, "default" and 11pt. Default size of a plot is 5 inches wide and 3 inches high.

`solid` draws all plots with solid lines, overriding any dashed patterns; `"<fontname>"` is the name of font; and `<fontsize>` is the size of the font in PostScript points. Font selection isn't supported yet. Font size selection is supported only for the calculation of proper spacing. The actual LaTeX font at the point of inclusion is taken, so use LaTeX commands for changing fonts. If you use e.g. 12pt as font size for your LaTeX documents, use '"default" 12' as options.

All drivers for LaTeX offer a special way of controlling text positioning: (a) If any text string begins with '{', you also need to include a '}' at the end of the text, and the whole text will be centered both horizontally and vertically by LaTeX. (b) If the text string begins with '[', you need to continue it with: a position specification (up to two out of t,b,l,r), ']{', the text itself, and finally, '}'. The text itself may be anything LaTeX can typeset as an LR-box. \\rule{}{}'s may help for best positioning. See also the documentation for the `pslatex` terminal driver. To create multiline labels, use \\shortstack, for example

        set ylabel '[r]{\\shortstack{first line \\\\ second line}}'
     
     

The driver produces two different files, one for the eps part of the figure and one for the LaTeX part. The name of the eps file is taken from the output command. The name of the LaTeX file is derived by replacing the file extension (normally `.eps`) with `.tex` instead. There is no LaTeX output if no output file is given! Remember to close the file before leaving `gnuplot`.

In your LaTeX documents use '\\input{filename}' to include the figure. The `.eps` file is included by the command \\includegraphics{...}, so you must also include \\usepackage{graphicx} in the LaTeX preamble.

Pdf files can be made from the eps file using 'epstopdf'. If the graphics package is properly configured, the LaTeX files can also be processed by pdflatex without changes, using the pdf files instead of the eps files."


Node: epson-180dpi, Next: , Previous: epslatex, Up: terminal

epson-180dpi

This driver supports a family of Epson printers and derivatives.

`epson-180dpi` and `epson-60dpi` are drivers for Epson LQ-style 24-pin printers with resolutions of 180 and 60 dots per inch, respectively.

`epson-lx800` is a generic 9-pin driver appropriate for printers like the Epson LX-800, the Star NL-10 and NX-1000, the PROPRINTER, and so forth.

`nec-cp6` is generic 24-pin driver that can be used for printers like the NEC CP6 and the Epson LQ-800.

The `okidata` driver supports the 9-pin OKIDATA 320/321 Standard printers.

The `starc` driver is for the Star Color Printer.

The `tandy-60dpi` driver is for the Tandy DMP-130 series of 9-pin, 60-dpi printers.

Only `nec-cp6` has any options.

Syntax:

           set terminal nec-cp6 {monochrome | colour | draft}
     
     

which defaults to monochrome.

With each of these drivers, a binary copy is required on a PC to print. Do not use `print`--use instead `copy file /b lpt1:`."


Node: excl, Next: , Previous: epson-180dpi, Up: terminal

excl

The `excl` terminal driver supports Talaris printers such as the EXCL Laser printer and the 1590. It has no options."


Node: hercules, Next: , Previous: excl, Up: terminal

hercules

These drivers supports PC monitors with autodetected graphics boards. They can be used only when compiled with Zortech C/C++. None have options."


Node: fig, Next: , Previous: hercules, Up: terminal

fig

The `fig` terminal device generates output in the Fig graphics language.

Syntax:

           set terminal fig {monochrome | color}
                            {landscape | portrait}
                            {small | big | size <xsize> <ysize>}
                            {metric | inches}
                            {pointsmax <max_points>}
                            {solid | dashed}
                            {fontsize <fsize>}
                            {textnormal | {textspecial texthidden textrigid}}
                            {thickness <units>}
                            {depth <layer>}
                            {version <number>}
     
     

`monochrome` and `color` determine whether the picture is black-and-white or `color`. `small` and `big` produce a 5x3 or 8x5 inch graph in the default `landscape` mode and 3x5 or 5x8 inches in `portrait` mode. size sets (overrides) the size of the drawing area to <xsize>*<ysize> in units of inches or centimeters depending on the `inches` or `metric` setting in effect. The latter settings is also used as default units for editing with "xfig".

`pointsmax <max_points>` sets the maximum number of points per polyline.

`solid` inhibits automatic usage of `dash`ed lines when solid linestyles are used up, which otherwise occurs.

`fontsize` sets the size of the text font to <fsize> points. `textnormal` resets the text flags and selects postscript fonts, `textspecial` sets the text flags for LaTeX specials, `texthidden` sets the hidden flag and `textrigid` the rigid flag.

`depth` sets the default depth layer for all lines and text. The default depth is 10 to leave room for adding material with "xfig" on top of the plot. version sets the format version of the generated fig output. Currently only versions 3.1 and 3.2 are supported.

`thickness` sets the default line thickness, which is 1 if not specified. Overriding the thickness can be achieved by adding a multiple of 100 to the `linetype` value for a `plot` command. In a similar way the `depth` of plot elements (with respect to the default depth) can be controlled by adding a multiple of 1000 to <linetype>. The depth is then <layer> + <linetype>/1000 and the thickness is (<linetype>%1000)/100 or, if that is zero, the default line thickness.

Additional point-plot symbols are also available with the `fig` driver. The symbols can be used through `pointtype` values % 100 above 50, with different fill intensities controlled by <pointtype> % 5 and outlines in black (for <pointtype> % 10 < 5) or in the current color. Available symbols are

             50 - 59:  circles
             60 - 69:  squares
             70 - 79:  diamonds
             80 - 89:  upwards triangles
             90 - 99:  downwards triangles
     

The size of these symbols is linked to the font size. The depth of symbols is by default one less than the depth for lines to achieve nice error bars. If <pointtype> is above 1000, the depth is <layer> + <pointtype>/1000-1. If <pointtype>%1000 is above 100, the fill color is (<pointtype>%1000)/100-1.

Available fill colors are (from 1 to 9): black, blue, green, cyan, red, magenta, yellow, white and dark blue (in monochrome mode: black for 1 to 6 and white for 7 to 9).

See with for details of <linetype> and <pointtype>.

The `big` option is a substitute for the `bfig` terminal in earlier versions, which is no longer supported.

Examples:

           set terminal fig monochrome small pointsmax 1000  # defaults
     
     
           plot 'file.dat' with points linetype 102 pointtype 759
     

would produce circles with a blue outline of width 1 and yellow fill color.

           plot 'file.dat' using 1:2:3 with err linetype 1 pointtype 554
     

would produce errorbars with black lines and circles filled red. These circles are one layer above the lines (at depth 9 by default).

To plot the error bars on top of the circles use

           plot 'file.dat' using 1:2:3 with err linetype 1 pointtype 2554"
     
     


Node: png_(NEW), Next: , Previous: fig, Up: terminal

png (NEW)

Syntax:

           set terminal png
                  {{no}transparent} {{no}interlace}
                  {tiny | small | medium | large | giant}
                  {font <face> {<pointsize>}}
                  {size <x>,<y>} {{no}crop}
                  {{no}enhanced}
                  {<color0> <color1> <color2> ...}
     
     

PNG images are created using libgd, with optional support for TrueType and Adobe Type 1 fonts via libfreetype. Version 1.8 or greater of libgd is required.

`transparent` instructs the driver to generate transparent PNGs. The first color will be the transparent one. Default is `notransparent`.

`interlace` instructs the driver to generate interlaced PNGs. Default is `nointerlace`.

Five basic fonts are supported directly by the gd library. These are `tiny` (5x8 pixels), `small` (6x12 pixels), `medium`, (7x13 Bold), `large` (8x16) or `giant` (9x15 pixels). These fonts cannot be scaled or rotated (pure horizontal or vertical text only).

If gnuplot was built with support for TrueType (*.ttf) or Adobe Type 1 (*.pfa) fonts, they may be selected using the 'font <face> {<pointsize>}' option. <face> is either the full pathname to the font file, or a font face name that is assumed to be the first part of a filename in one of the directories listed in the GDFONTPATH environmental variable. That is, 'set term png font "Face"' will look for a font file named either <somedirectory>/Face.ttf or <somedirectory>/Face.pfa. Both TrueType and Adobe Type 1 fonts are fully scalable and may be rotated through any angle. If no font is specified, gnuplot checks the environmental variable GNUPLOT_DEFAULT_GDFONT to see if there is a preferred default font.

`enhanced` enables the enhanced text processing features, (subscripts, superscripts and mixed fonts). See `enhanced` for more information. The full enhanced mode syntax is supported by the PNG/JPEG driver itself, but some of these features are dependent on which version of the underlying libgd library is present, and which fonts are available.

The size <x,y> is given in pixels--it defaults to 640x480. The number of pixels can be also modified by scaling with the size command. `crop` trims blank space from the edges of the completed plot, resulting in a smaller final image size. Default is `nocrop`.

Each color must be of the form 'xrrggbb', where x is the literal character 'x' and 'rrggbb' are the red, green and blue components in hex. For example, 'x00ff00' is green. The background color is set first, then the border colors, then the X & Y axis colors, then the plotting colors. The maximum number of colors that can be set is 256.

Examples:

           set terminal png medium size 640,480 \\
                            xffffff x000000 x404040 \\
                            xff0000 xffa500 x66cdaa xcdb5cd \\
                            xadd8e6 x0000ff xdda0dd x9500d3    # defaults
     
     

which uses white for the non-transparent background, black for borders, gray for the axes, and red, orange, medium aquamarine, thistle 3, light blue, blue, plum and dark violet for eight plotting colors.

           set terminal png font arial 14 size 800,600
     
     

which searches for a TrueType font with face name 'arial' in the directory specified by the environment variable GDFONTPATH and 14pt font size.

           set terminal png transparent xffffff \\
                            x000000 x202020 x404040 x606060 \\
                            x808080 xA0A0A0 xC0C0C0 xE0E0E0
     
     

which uses white for the transparent background, black for borders, dark gray for axes, and a gray-scale for the six plotting colors.


Node: ggi, Next: , Previous: png_(NEW), Up: terminal

ggi

The `ggi` driver can run on different targets as X or svgalib.

Syntax:

        set terminal ggi [acceleration <integer>] [[mode] {mode}]
     
     

In X the window cannot be resized using window manager handles, but the mode can be given with the mode option, e.g.:

      - V1024x768
      - V800x600
      - V640x480
      - V320x200
     

Please refer to the ggi documentation for other modes. The 'mode' keyword is optional. It is recommended to select the target by environment variables as explained in the libggi manual page. To get DGA on X, you should for example

        bash> export GGI_DISPLAY=DGA
        csh>  setenv GGI_DISPLAY DGA
     
     

'acceleration' is only used for targets which report relative pointer motion events (e.g. DGA) and is a strictly positive integer multiplication factor for the relative distances. The default for acceleration is 7.

Examples:

        set term ggi acc 10
        set term ggi acc 1 mode V1024x768
        set term ggi V1024x768"
     
     


Node: gif, Next: , Previous: ggi, Up: terminal

gif

The `gif` terminal driver generates output in GIF format. It uses Thomas Boutell's gd library, which is available from http://www.boutell.com/gd/ Support for GIF output was removed from the gd library beginning with version 1.6; newer versions support PNG output instead.

>>> This copy of gnuplot was configured to produce PNG images <<< >>> instead of GIF images when 'set term gif' is selected. <<<

Syntax:

           set terminal gif {transparent} {interlace}
                            {tiny | small | medium | large | giant}
                            {size <x>,<y>}
                            {<color0> <color1> <color2> ...}
     
     

`transparent` instructs the driver to generate transparent GIFs. The first color will be the transparent one.

`interlace` instructs the driver to generate interlaced GIFs.

The choice of fonts is `tiny` (5x8 pixels), `small` (6x12 pixels), `medium` (7x13 Bold), `large` (8x16) or `giant` (9x15 pixels)

The size <x,y> is given in pixels--it defaults to 640x480. The number of pixels can be also modified by scaling with the size command.

Each color must be of the form 'xrrggbb', where x is the literal character 'x' and 'rrggbb' are the red, green and blue components in hex. For example, 'x00ff00' is green. The background color is set first, then the border colors, then the X & Y axis colors, then the plotting colors. The maximum number of colors that can be set is 256.

Examples:

           set terminal gif small size 640,480 \\
                            xffffff x000000 x404040 \\
                            xff0000 xffa500 x66cdaa xcdb5cd \\
                            xadd8e6 x0000ff xdda0dd x9500d3    # defaults
     
     

which uses white for the non-transparent background, black for borders, gray for the axes, and red, orange, medium aquamarine, thistle 3, light blue, blue, plum and dark violet for eight plotting colors.

           set terminal gif transparent xffffff \\
                            x000000 x202020 x404040 x606060 \\
                            x808080 xA0A0A0 xC0C0C0 xE0E0E0
     
     

which uses white for the transparent background, black for borders, dark gray for axes, and a gray-scale for the six plotting colors.

The page size is 640x480 pixels. The `gif` driver can create either color or monochromatic output, but you have no control over which is produced.

The current version of the `gif` driver does not support animated GIFs."


Node: Gnugraph(GNU_plotutils), Next: , Previous: gif, Up: terminal

Gnugraph(GNU plotutils)

The `gnugraph` driver produces device-independent output in the GNU plot graphics language. The default size of the PostScript results generated by "plot2ps" is 5 x 3 inches; this can be increased up to about 8.25 x 8.25 by size.

Syntax:

           set terminal gnugraph {"<fontname>"} {<fontsize>}
                                 {type <pt>} {size "<size>"}
     
     

which defaults to 10-point "Courier".

For `type`, the following options are accepted: `X`, `pnm`, `gif`, `ai`, `ps`, `cgm`, `fig`, `pcl5`, `hpgl`, `tek`, and `meta` (default). The size option (default is a4) is passed straight through to plotutils, it's the user's responsibility to provide correct values. Details can be found in the plotutils documentation.

Examples:

           set terminal gnugraph type hpgl size "a4"
           set terminal gnugraph size "a4,xoffset=-5mm,yoffset=2.0cm" type pnm
     
     

There is a non-GNU version of the `gnugraph` driver which cannot be compiled unless this version is left out."


Node: gpic, Next: , Previous: Gnugraph(GNU_plotutils), Up: terminal

gpic

The `gpic` terminal driver generates GPIC graphs in the Free Software Foundations's "groff" package. The default size is 5 x 3 inches. The only option is the origin, which defaults to (0,0).

Syntax:

           set terminal gpic {<x> <y>}
     
     

where `x` and `y` are in inches.

A simple graph can be formatted using

           groff -p -mpic -Tps file.pic > file.ps.
     
     

The output from pic can be pipe-lined into eqn, so it is possible to put complex functions in a graph with the label and `set {x/y}label` commands. For instance,

           set ylab '@space 0 int from 0 to x alpha ( t ) roman d t@'
     
     

will label the y axis with a nice integral if formatted with the command:

           gpic filename.pic | geqn -d@@ -Tps | groff -m[macro-package] -Tps
               > filename.ps
     
     

Figures made this way can be scaled to fit into a document. The pic language is easy to understand, so the graphs can be edited by hand if need be. All co-ordinates in the pic-file produced by `gnuplot` are given as x+gnuplotx and y+gnuploty. By default x and y are given the value 0. If this line is removed with an editor in a number of files, one can put several graphs in one figure like this (default size is 5.0x3.0 inches):

           .PS 8.0
           x=0;y=3
           copy "figa.pic"
           x=5;y=3
           copy "figb.pic"
           x=0;y=0
           copy "figc.pic"
           x=5;y=0
           copy "figd.pic"
           .PE
     
     

This will produce an 8-inch-wide figure with four graphs in two rows on top of each other.

One can also achieve the same thing by the command

           set terminal gpic x y
     
     

for example, using

           .PS 6.0
           copy "trig.pic"
           .PE"
     
     


Node: gpic_, Next: , Previous: gpic, Up: terminal

gpic

The `gpic` terminal driver generates GPIC graphs in the Free Software Foundations's "groff" package. The default size is 5 x 3 inches. The only option is the origin, which defaults to (0,0).

Syntax:

           set terminal gpic {<x> <y>}
     
     

where `x` and `y` are in inches.

A simple graph can be formatted using

           groff -p -mpic -Tps file.pic > file.ps.
     
     

The output from pic can be pipe-lined into eqn, so it is possible to put complex functions in a graph with the label and `set {x/y}label` commands. For instance,

           set ylab '@space 0 int from 0 to x alpha ( t ) roman d t@'
     
     

will label the y axis with a nice integral if formatted with the command:

           gpic filename.pic | geqn -d@@ -Tps | groff -m[macro-package] -Tps
               > filename.ps
     
     

Figures made this way can be scaled to fit into a document. The pic language is easy to understand, so the graphs can be edited by hand if need be. All co-ordinates in the pic-file produced by `gnuplot` are given as x+gnuplotx and y+gnuploty. By default x and y are given the value 0. If this line is removed with an editor in a number of files, one can put several graphs in one figure like this (default size is 5.0x3.0 inches):

           .PS 8.0
           x=0;y=3
           copy "figa.pic"
           x=5;y=3
           copy "figb.pic"
           x=0;y=0
           copy "figc.pic"
           x=5;y=0
           copy "figd.pic"
           .PE
     
     

This will produce an 8-inch-wide figure with four graphs in two rows on top of each other.

One can also achieve the same thing by the command

           set terminal gpic x y
     
     

for example, using

           .PS 6.0
           copy "trig.pic"
           .PE"
     
     


Node: gpr, Next: , Previous: gpic_, Up: terminal

gpr

The `gpr` terminal driver supports the Apollo Graphics Primitive Resource for a fixed-size window. It has no options.

If a variable window size is desired, use the `apollo` terminal instead."


Node: grass, Next: , Previous: gpr, Up: terminal

grass

The `grass` terminal driver gives `gnuplot` capabilities to users of the GRASS geographic information system. Contact grassp-list@moon.cecer.army.mil for more information. Pages are written to the current frame of the GRASS Graphics Window. There are no options."


Node: hp2623a, Next: , Previous: grass, Up: terminal

hp2623a

The `hp2623a` terminal driver supports the Hewlett Packard HP2623A. It has no options."


Node: hp2648, Next: , Previous: hp2623a, Up: terminal

hp2648

The `hp2648` terminal driver supports the Hewlett Packard HP2647 and HP2648. It has no options."


Node: hp500c, Next: , Previous: hp2648, Up: terminal

hp500c

The `hp500c` terminal driver supports the Hewlett Packard HP DeskJet 500c. It has options for resolution and compression.

Syntax:

           set terminal hp500c {<res>} {<comp>}
     
     

where `res` can be 75, 100, 150 or 300 dots per inch and `comp` can be "rle", or "tiff". Any other inputs are replaced by the defaults, which are 75 dpi and no compression. Rasterization at the higher resolutions may require a large amount of memory."


Node: hpgl, Next: , Previous: hp500c, Up: terminal

hpgl

The `hpgl` driver produces HPGL output for devices like the HP7475A plotter. There are two options which can be set: the number of pens and `eject`, which tells the plotter to eject a page when done. The default is to use 6 pens and not to eject the page when done.

The international character sets ISO-8859-1 and CP850 are recognized via `set encoding iso_8859_1` or `set encoding cp850` (see encoding for details).

Syntax:

           set terminal hpgl {<number_of_pens>} {eject}
     
     

The selection

           set terminal hpgl 8 eject
     
     

is equivalent to the previous `hp7550` terminal, and the selection

           set terminal hpgl 4
     
     

is equivalent to the previous `hp7580b` terminal.

The `pcl5` driver supports plotters such as the Hewlett-Packard Designjet 750C, the Hewlett-Packard Laserjet III, and the Hewlett-Packard Laserjet IV. It actually uses HPGL-2, but there is a name conflict among the terminal devices. It has several options which must be specified in the order indicated below:

Syntax:

           set terminal pcl5 {mode <mode>} {<plotsize>}
               {{color {<number_of_pens>}} | monochrome} {solid | dashed}
               {font <font>} {size <fontsize>} {pspoints | nopspoints}
     
     

<mode> is `landscape` or `portrait`. <plotsize> is the physical plotting size of the plot, which is one of the following: `letter` for standard (8 1/2" X 11") displays, `legal` for (8 1/2" X 14") displays, `noextended` for (36" X 48") displays (a letter size ratio) or, `extended` for (36" X 55") displays (almost a legal size ratio). `color` is for multi-pen (i.e. color) plots, and <number_of_pens> is the number of pens (i.e. colors) used in color plots. `monochrome` is for one (e.g. black) pen plots. `solid` draws all lines as solid lines, or `dashed` will draw lines with different dashed and dotted line patterns. <font> is `stick`, `univers`, `cg_times`, `zapf_dingbats`, `antique_olive`, `arial`, `courier`, `garamond_antigua`, `letter_gothic`, `cg_omega`, `albertus`, `times_new_roman`, `clarendon`, `coronet`, `marigold`, `truetype_symbols`, or `wingdings`. <fontsize> is the font size in points. The point type selection can be the standard default set by specifying `nopspoints`, or the same set of point types found in the postscript terminal by specifying `pspoints`.

Note that built-in support of some of these options is printer device dependent. For instance, all the fonts are supposedly supported by the HP Laserjet IV, but only a few (e.g. univers, stick) may be supported by the HP Laserjet III and the Designjet 750C. Also, color obviously won't work on the the laserjets since they are monochrome devices.

Defaults: landscape, noextended, color (6 pens), solid, univers, 12 point,

               and nopspoints.
     
     

With `pcl5` international characters are handled by the printer; you just put the appropriate 8-bit character codes into the text strings. You don't need to bother with encoding.

HPGL graphics can be imported by many software packages."


Node: hpljii, Next: , Previous: hpgl, Up: terminal

hpljii

The `hpljii` terminal driver supports the HP Laserjet Series II printer. The `hpdj` driver supports the HP DeskJet 500 printer. These drivers allow a choice of resolutions.

Syntax:

           set terminal hpljii | hpdj {<res>}
     
     

where `res` may be 75, 100, 150 or 300 dots per inch; the default is 75. Rasterization at the higher resolutions may require a large amount of memory.

The `hp500c` terminal is similar to `hpdj`; `hp500c` additionally supports color and compression."


Node: hppj, Next: , Previous: hpljii, Up: terminal

hppj

The `hppj` terminal driver supports the HP PaintJet and HP3630 printers. The only option is the choice of font.

Syntax:

           set terminal hppj {FNT5X9 | FNT9X17 | FNT13X25}
     
     

with the middle-sized font (FNT9X17) being the default."


Node: imagen, Next: , Previous: hppj, Up: terminal

imagen

The `imagen` terminal driver supports Imagen laser printers. It is capable of placing multiple graphs on a single page.

Syntax:

           set terminal imagen {<fontsize>} {portrait | landscape}
                               {[<horiz>,<vert>]}
     
     

where `fontsize` defaults to 12 points and the layout defaults to `landscape`. `<horiz>` and `<vert>` are the number of graphs in the horizontal and vertical directions; these default to unity.

Example:

           set terminal imagen portrait [2,3]
     
     

puts six graphs on the page in three rows of two in portrait orientation."


Node: iris4d, Next: , Previous: imagen, Up: terminal

iris4d

The `iris4d` terminal driver supports Silicon Graphics IRIS 4D computers. Its only option is 8- or 24-bit color depth. The default is 8.

Syntax:

           set terminal iris4d {8 | 24}
     
     

The color depth is not really a choice - the value appropriate for the hardware should be selected.

When using 24-bit mode, the colors can be directly specified via the file .gnuplot_iris4d that is searched in the current directory and then in the home directory specified by the HOME environment variable. This file holds RGB values for the background, border, labels and nine plotting colors, in that order. For example, here is a file containing the default colors:

           85   85   85     Background   (dark gray)
           0    0    0      Boundary     (black)
           170  0    170    Labeling     (magenta)
           85   255  255    Plot Color 1 (light cyan)
           170  0    0      Plot Color 2 (red)
           0    170  0      Plot Color 3 (green)
           255  85   255    Plot Color 4 (light magenta)
           255  255  85     Plot Color 5 (yellow)
           255  85   85     Plot Color 6 (light red)
           85   255  85     Plot Color 7 (light green)
           0    170  170    Plot Color 8 (cyan)
           170  170  0      Plot Color 9 (brown)
     
     

This file must have exactly 12 lines of RGB triples. No empty lines are allowed, and anything after the third number on a line is ignored."


Node: kyo, Next: , Previous: iris4d, Up: terminal

kyo

The `kyo` and `prescribe` terminal drivers support the Kyocera laser printer. The only difference between the two is that `kyo` uses "Helvetica" whereas `prescribe` uses "Courier". There are no options."


Node: latex, Next: , Previous: kyo, Up: terminal

latex

The `latex` and `emtex` drivers allow two options.

Syntax:

           set terminal latex | emtex {courier | roman | default} {<fontsize>}
     
     

`fontsize` may be any size you specify. The default is for the plot to inherit its font setting from the embedding document.

Unless your driver is capable of building fonts at any size (e.g. dvips), stick to the standard 10, 11 and 12 point sizes.

METAFONT users beware: METAFONT does not like odd sizes.

All drivers for LaTeX offer a special way of controlling text positioning: If any text string begins with '{', you also need to include a '}' at the end of the text, and the whole text will be centered both horizontally and vertically. If the text string begins with '[', you need to follow this with a position specification (up to two out of t,b,l,r), ']{', the text itself, and finally '}'. The text itself may be anything LaTeX can typeset as an LR-box. '\\rule{}{}'s may help for best positioning.

Points, among other things, are drawn using the LaTeX commands "\\Diamond" and "\\Box". These commands no longer belong to the LaTeX2e core; they are included in the latexsym package, which is part of the base distribution and thus part of any LaTeX implementation. Please do not forget to use this package.

Examples: About label positioning: Use gnuplot defaults (mostly sensible, but sometimes not really best):

            set title '\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $'
     

Force centering both horizontally and vertically:

            set label '{\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $}' at 0,0
     

Specify own positioning (top here):

            set xlabel '[t]{\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $}'
     

The other label - account for long ticlabels:

            set ylabel '[r]{\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $\\rule{7mm}{0pt}}'"
     
     


Node: linux, Next: , Previous: latex, Up: terminal

linux

The `linux` driver has no additional options to specify. It looks at the environment variable GSVGAMODE for the default mode; if not set, it uses 1024x768x256 as default mode or, if that is not possible, 640x480x16 (standard VGA)."


Node: linux_, Next: , Previous: linux, Up: terminal

linux

The `linux` driver has no additional options to specify. It looks at the environment variable GSVGAMODE for the default mode; if not set, it uses 1024x768x256 as default mode or, if that is not possible, 640x480x16 (standard VGA)."


Node: macintosh, Next: , Previous: linux_, Up: terminal

macintosh

Several options may be set in the 'macintosh' driver.

Syntax:

          set terminal macintosh {singlewin | multiwin} {vertical | novertical}
                                 {size <width>, <height> | default}
     
     

'singlewin' limits the output to a single window and is useful for animations. 'multiwin' allows multiple windows. 'vertical' is only valid under the gx option. With this option, rotated text

         be drawn vertically. novertical turns this option off.
      size <width>, <height> overrides the graph size set in the preferences
         dialog until it is cleared with either 'set term mac size default'
         or 'set term mac default'.
     
     
      'set term mac size default' sets the window size settings to those set in
         the preferences dialog.
     
     
      'set term mac default' sets all options to their default values.
         Default values: nogx, multiwin, novertical.
     
     
      If you generate graphs under the multiwin option and then switch to singlewin,
      the next plot command will cause one more window to be created. This new
      window will be reused as long as singlewin is in effect. If you switch back
      to multiwin, generate some graphs, and then switch to singlewin again, the
      orginal 'singlewin' window will be resused if it is still open. Otherwise
      a new 'singlewin' window will be created. The 'singlewin' window is not numbered."
     
     


Node: mf, Next: , Previous: macintosh, Up: terminal

mf

The `mf` terminal driver creates an input file to the METAFONT program. Thus a figure may be used in the TeX document in the same way as is a character.

To use a picture in a document, the METAFONT program must be run with the output file from `gnuplot` as input. Thus, the user needs a basic knowledge of the font creating process and the procedure for including a new font in a document. However, if the METAFONT program is set up properly at the local site, an unexperienced user could perform the operation without much trouble.

The text support is based on a METAFONT character set. Currently the Computer Modern Roman font set is input, but the user is in principal free to choose whatever fonts he or she needs. The METAFONT source files for the chosen font must be available. Each character is stored in a separate picture variable in METAFONT. These variables may be manipulated (rotated, scaled etc.) when characters are needed. The drawback is the interpretation time in the METAFONT program. On some machines (i.e. PC) the limited amount of memory available may also cause problems if too many pictures are stored.

The `mf` terminal has no options.

-- METAFONT INSTRUCTIONS --

- Set your terminal to METAFONT:

       set terminal mf
     

- Select an output-file, e.g.:

       set output "myfigures.mf"
     

- Create your pictures. Each picture will generate a separate character. Its default size will be 5*3 inches. You can change the size by saying `set size 0.5,0.5` or whatever fraction of the default size you want to have.

- Quit `gnuplot`.

- Generate a TFM and GF file by running METAFONT on the output of `gnuplot`. Since the picture is quite large (5*3 in), you will have to use a version of METAFONT that has a value of at least 150000 for memmax. On Unix systems these are conventionally installed under the name bigmf. For the following assume that the command virmf stands for a big version of METAFONT. For example:

- Invoke METAFONT:

         virmf '&plain'
     

- Select the output device: At the METAFONT prompt ('*') type:

         \\mode:=CanonCX;     % or whatever printer you use
     

- Optionally select a magnification:

         mag:=1;             % or whatever you wish
     

- Input the `gnuplot`-file:

         input myfigures.mf
     

On a typical Unix machine there will usually be a script called "mf" that executes virmf '&plain', so you probably can substitute mf for virmf &plain. This will generate two files: mfput.tfm and mfput.$$$gf (where $$$ indicates the resolution of your device). The above can be conveniently achieved by typing everything on the command line, e.g.: virmf '&plain' '\\mode:=CanonCX; mag:=1; input myfigures.mf' In this case the output files will be named myfigures.tfm and myfigures.300gf.

- Generate a PK file from the GF file using gftopk:

       gftopk myfigures.300gf myfigures.300pk
     

The name of the output file for gftopk depends on the DVI driver you use. Ask your local TeX administrator about the naming conventions. Next, either install the TFM and PK files in the appropriate directories, or set your environment variables properly. Usually this involves setting TEXFONTS to include the current directory and doing the same thing for the environment variable that your DVI driver uses (no standard name here...). This step is necessary so that TeX will find the font metric file and your DVI driver will find the PK file.

- To include your pictures in your document you have to tell TeX the font:

       \\font\\gnufigs=myfigures
     

Each picture you made is stored in a single character. The first picture is character 0, the second is character 1, and so on... After doing the above step, you can use the pictures just like any other characters. Therefore, to place pictures 1 and 2 centered in your document, all you have to do is:

       \\centerline{\\gnufigs\\char0}
       \\centerline{\\gnufigs\\char1}
     

in plain TeX. For LaTeX you can, of course, use the picture environment and place the picture wherever you wish by using the \\makebox and \\put macros.

This conversion saves you a lot of time once you have generated the font; TeX handles the pictures as characters and uses minimal time to place them, and the documents you make change more often than the pictures do. It also saves a lot of TeX memory. One last advantage of using the METAFONT driver is that the DVI file really remains device independent, because no \\special commands are used as in the eepic and tpic drivers."


Node: mp, Next: , Previous: mf, Up: terminal

mp

The `mp` driver produces output intended to be input to the Metapost program. Running Metapost on the file creates EPS files containing the plots. By default, Metapost passes all text through TeX. This has the advantage of allowing essentially any TeX symbols in titles and labels.

Syntax:

        set term mp {color | colour | monochrome}
                    {solid | dashed}
                    {notex | tex | latex}
                    {magnification <magsize>}
                    {psnfss | psnfss-version7 | nopsnfss}
                    {prologues <value>}
                    {a4paper}
                    {amstex}
                    {"<fontname>"} {<fontsize>}
     
     

The option `color` causes lines to be drawn in color (on a printer or display that supports it), `monochrome` (or nothing) selects black lines. The option `solid` draws solid lines, while `dashed` (or nothing) selects lines with different patterns of dashes. If `solid` is selected but `color` is not, nearly all lines will be identical. This may occasionally be useful, so it is allowed.

The option `notex` bypasses TeX entirely, therefore no TeX code can be used in labels under this option. This is intended for use on old plot files or files that make frequent use of common characters like `$` and `%` that require special handling in TeX.

The option `tex` sets the terminal to output its text for TeX to process.

The option `latex` sets the terminal to output its text for processing by LaTeX. This allows things like \\frac for fractions which LaTeX knows about but TeX does not. Note that you must set the environment variable TEX to the name of your LaTeX executable (normally latex) if you use this option or use `mpost -tex=<name of LaTeX executable> ...`. Otherwise metapost will try and use TeX to process the text and it won't work.

Changing font sizes in TeX has no effect on the size of mathematics, and there is no foolproof way to make such a change, except by globally setting a magnification factor. This is the purpose of the `magnification` option. It must be followed by a scaling factor. All text (NOT the graphs) will be scaled by this factor. Use this if you have math that you want at some size other than the default 10pt. Unfortunately, all math will be the same size, but see the discussion below on editing the MP output. `mag` will also work under `notex` but there seems no point in using it as the font size option (below) works as well.

The option `psnfss` uses postscript fonts in combination with LaTeX. Since this option only makes sense, if LaTeX is being used, the `latex` option is selected automatically. This option includes the following packages for LaTeX: inputenc(latin1), fontenc(T1), mathptmx, helvet(scaled=09.2), courier, latexsym and textcomp.

The option `psnfss-version7` uses also postscript fonts in LaTeX (option `latex` is also automatically selected), but uses the following packages with LaTeX: inputenc(latin1), fontenc(T1), times, mathptmx, helvet and courier.

The option `nopsnfss` is the default and uses the standard font (cmr10 if not otherwise specified).

The option `prologues` takes a value as an additional argument and adds the line `prologues:=<value>` to the metapost file. If a value of `2` is specified metapost uses postscript fonts to generate the eps-file, so that the result can be viewed using e.g. ghostscript. Normally the output of metapost uses TeX fonts and therefore has to be included in a (La)TeX file before you can look at it.

The option `noprologues` is the default. No additional line specifying the prologue will be added.

The option `a4paper` adds a `[a4paper]` to the documentclass. Normally letter paper is used (default). Since this option is only used in case of LaTeX, the `latex` option is selected automatically.

The option `amstex` automatically selects the `latex` option and includes the following LaTeX packages: amsfonts, amsmath(intlimits). By default these packages are not included.

A name in quotes selects the font that will be used when no explicit font is given in a label or `set title`. A name recognized by TeX (a TFM file exists) must be used. The default is "cmr10" unless `notex` is selected, then it is "pcrr8r" (Courier). Even under `notex`, a TFM file is needed by Metapost. The file `pcrr8r.tfm` is the name given to Courier in LaTeX's psnfss package. If you change the font from the `notex` default, choose a font that matches the ASCII encoding at least in the range 32-126. `cmtt10` almost works, but it has a nonblank character in position 32 (space).

The size can be any number between 5.0 and 99.99. If it is omitted, 10.0 is used. It is advisable to use `magstep` sizes: 10 times an integer or half-integer power of 1.2, rounded to two decimals, because those are the most available sizes of fonts in TeX systems.

All the options are optional. If font information is given, it must be at the end, with size (if present) last. The size is needed to select a size for the font, even if the font name includes size information. For example, `set term mp "cmtt12"` selects cmtt12 shrunk to the default size 10. This is probably not what you want or you would have used cmtt10.

The following common ascii characters need special treatment in TeX:

        $, &, #, %, _;  |, <, >;  ^, ~,  \\, {, and }
     

The five characters $, #, &, _, and % can simply be escaped, e.g., `\\$`. The three characters <, >, and | can be wrapped in math mode, e.g., `$<$`. The remainder require some TeX work-arounds. Any good book on TeX will give some guidance.

If you type your labels inside double quotes, backslashes in TeX code need to be escaped (doubled). Using single quotes will avoid having to do this, but then you cannot use `\\n` for line breaks. As of this writing, version 3.7 of gnuplot processes titles given in a `plot` command differently than in other places, and backslashes in TeX commands need to be doubled regardless of the style of quotes.

Metapost pictures are typically used in TeX documents. Metapost deals with fonts pretty much the same way TeX does, which is different from most other document preparation programs. If the picture is included in a LaTeX document using the graphics package, or in a plainTeX document via epsf.tex, and then converted to PostScript with dvips (or other dvi-to-ps converter), the text in the plot will usually be handled correctly. However, the text may not appear if you send the Metapost output as-is to a PostScript interpreter.

-- METAPOST INSTRUCTIONS --

- Set your terminal to Metapost, e.g.:

        set terminal mp mono "cmtt12" 12
     
     

- Select an output-file, e.g.:

        set output "figure.mp"
     
     

- Create your pictures. Each plot (or multiplot group) will generate a separate Metapost beginfig...endfig group. Its default size will be 5 by 3 inches. You can change the size by saying `set size 0.5,0.5` or whatever fraction of the default size you want to have.

- Quit gnuplot.

- Generate EPS files by running Metapost on the output of gnuplot:

        mpost figure.mp  OR  mp figure.mp
     

The name of the Metapost program depends on the system, typically `mpost` for a Unix machine and `mp` on many others. Metapost will generate one EPS file for each picture.

- To include your pictures in your document you can use the graphics package in LaTeX or epsf.tex in plainTeX:

        \\usepackage{graphics} % LaTeX
        \\input epsf.tex       % plainTeX
     

If you use a driver other than dvips for converting TeX DVI output to PS, you may need to add the following line in your LaTeX document:

        \\DeclareGraphicsRule{*}{eps}{*}{}
     

Each picture you made is in a separate file. The first picture is in, e.g., figure.0, the second in figure.1, and so on.... To place the third picture in your document, for example, all you have to do is:

        \\includegraphics{figure.2} % LaTeX
        \\epsfbox{figure.2}         % plainTeX
     
     

The advantage, if any, of the mp terminal over a postscript terminal is editable output. Considerable effort went into making this output as clean as possible. For those knowledgeable in the Metapost language, the default line types and colors can be changed by editing the arrays `lt[]` and `col[]`. The choice of solid vs dashed lines, and color vs black lines can be change by changing the values assigned to the booleans `dashedlines` and `colorlines`. If the default `tex` option was in effect, global changes to the text of labels can be achieved by editing the `vebatimtex...etex` block. In particular, a LaTeX preamble can be added if desired, and then LaTeX's built-in size changing commands can be used for maximum flexibility. Be sure to set the appropriate MP configuration variable to force Metapost to run LaTeX instead of plainTeX."


Node: mgr, Next: , Previous: mp, Up: terminal

mgr

The `mgr` terminal driver supports the Mgr Window system. It has no options."


Node: mif, Next: , Previous: mgr, Up: terminal

mif

The `mif` terminal driver produces Frame Maker MIF format version 3.00. It plots in MIF Frames with the size 15*10 cm, and plot primitives with the same pen will be grouped in the same MIF group. Plot primitives in a `gnuplot` page will be plotted in a MIF Frame, and several MIF Frames are collected in one large MIF Frame. The MIF font used for text is "Times".

Several options may be set in the MIF 3.00 driver.

Syntax:

           set terminal mif {color | colour | monochrome} {polyline | vectors}
                            {help | ?}
     
     

`colour` plots lines with line types >= 0 in colour (MIF sep. 2-7) and `monochrome` plots all line types in black (MIF sep. 0). `polyline` plots curves as continuous curves and `vectors` plots curves as collections of vectors. help and `?` print online help on standard error output--both print a short description of the usage; help also lists the options.

Examples:

           set term mif colour polylines    # defaults
           set term mif                     # defaults
           set term mif vectors
           set term mif help"
     
     


Node: mtos, Next: , Previous: mif, Up: terminal

mtos

The `mtos` terminal has no options. It sends data via a pipe to an external program called GPCLIENT. It runs under MULTITOS, Magic 3.x, MagicMAC. and MiNT. If you cannot find GPCLIENT, than mail to dirk@lstm.uni-erlangen.de."


Node: next, Next: , Previous: mtos, Up: terminal

next

Several options may be set in the next driver.

Syntax:

           set terminal next {<mode>} {<type> } {<color>} {<dashed>}
                      {"<fontname>"} {<fontsize>} title {"<newtitle>"}
     
     

where <mode> is `default`, which sets all options to their defaults; <type> is either `new` or `old`, where `old` invokes the old single window; <color> is either `color` or `monochrome`; <dashed> is either `solid` or `dashed`; "<fontname>" is the name of a valid PostScript font; <fontsize> is the size of the font in PostScript points; and <title> is the title for the GnuTerm window. Defaults are `new`, `monochrome`, `dashed`, "Helvetica", 14pt.

Examples:

           set term next default
           set term next 22
           set term next color "Times-Roman" 14
           set term next color "Helvetica" 12 title "MyPlot"
           set term next old
     
     

Pointsizes may be changed with `set linestyle`."


Node: Openstep_(next), Next: , Previous: next, Up: terminal

Openstep (next)

/*

*/ Several options may be set in the openstep (next) driver.

Syntax:

           set terminal openstep {<mode>} {<type> } {<color>} {<dashed>}
                      {"<fontname>"} {<fontsize>} title {"<newtitle>"}
     
     

where <mode> is `default`, which sets all options to their defaults; <type> is either `new` or `old`, where `old` invokes the old single window; <color> is either `color` or `monochrome`; <dashed> is either `solid` or `dashed`; "<fontname>" is the name of a valid PostScript font; <fontsize> is the size of the font in PostScript points; and <title> is the title for the GnuTerm window. Defaults are `new`, `monochrome`, `dashed`, "Helvetica", 14pt.

Examples:

           set term openstep default
           set term openstep 22
           set term openstep color "Times-Roman" 14
           set term openstep color "Helvetica" 12 title "MyPlot"
           set term openstep old
     
     

Pointsizes may be changed with `set linestyle`."


Node: pbm, Next: , Previous: Openstep_(next), Up: terminal

pbm

Several options may be set in the `pbm` terminal--the driver for PBMplus.

Syntax:

           set terminal pbm {<fontsize>} {<mode>}
     
     

where <fontsize> is `small`, `medium`, or `large` and <mode> is `monochrome`, `gray` or `color`. The default plot size is 640 pixels wide and 480 pixels high; this may be changed by size.

The output of the `pbm` driver depends upon <mode>: `monochrome` produces a portable bitmap (one bit per pixel), `gray` a portable graymap (three bits per pixel) and `color` a portable pixmap (color, four bits per pixel).

The output of this driver can be used with Jef Poskanzer's excellent PBMPLUS package, which provides programs to convert the above PBMPLUS formats to GIF, TIFF, MacPaint, Macintosh PICT, PCX, X11 bitmap and many others. PBMPLUS may be obtained from ftp.x.org. The relevant files have names that begin with "netpbm-1mar1994.p1"; they reside in /contrib/utilities. The package can probably also be obtained from one of the many sites that mirrors ftp.x.org.

Examples:

           set terminal pbm small monochrome             # defaults
           set size 2,2; set terminal pbm color medium"
     
     


Node: dospc, Next: , Previous: pbm, Up: terminal

dospc

The `dospc` terminal driver supports PCs with arbitrary graphics boards, which will be automatically detected. It should be used only if you are not using the gcc or Zortec C/C++ compilers."


Node: pdf, Next: , Previous: dospc, Up: terminal

pdf

This terminal produces files in the Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF), useable for printing or display with tools like Acrobat Reader

Syntax:

           set terminal pdf {fname "<font>"} {fsize <fontsize>}
                            {{no}enhanced}
     
     

where <font> is the name of the default font to use (default Helvetica) and <fontsize> is the font size (in points, default 12).

The `enhanced` option enables enhanced text processing features (subscripts, superscripts and mixed fonts). See `enhanced` for more information. Only the core PDF fonts are supported."


Node: png_(OLD), Next: , Previous: pdf, Up: terminal

png (OLD)

The `png` terminal driver supports Portable Network Graphics. This old version of the png driver requires the third-party libraries "libpng" and "zlib". There is a newer png driver, with many more features, that is preferred if you have libgd version 1.8 or newer.

Syntax:

           set terminal png {small | medium | large}
                            {transparent|notransparent}
                            {picsize <xsize> <ysize>}
                            {monochrome | gray | color}
                            {<color0> <color1> <color2> ...}
     
     

`transparent` instructs the driver to generate transparent PNGs. The first color will be the transparent one.

        "
     

The defaults are `small` (fontsize) and `color`. Default size of the output is 640*480 pixel. This can be changed by the option `picsize`.

Each <color> must be of the form 'xrrggbb', where x is the literal character 'x' and 'rrggbb' are the red, green and blue components in hex. For example, 'x00ff00' is green. The background color is set first, then the border color, then the X & Y axis color, then the plotting colors. The maximum number of colors that can be set is currently 99."


Node: postscript_, Next: , Previous: png_(OLD), Up: terminal

postscript

Several options may be set in the postscript driver.

Syntax:

           set terminal postscript {<mode>} {enhanced | noenhanced}
                                   {color | colour | monochrome}
                                   {blacktext | colortext | colourtext}
                                   {solid | dashed} {dashlength | dl <DL>}
                                   {linewidth | lw <LW>}
                                   {<duplexing>}
                                   {rounded | butt}
                                   {fontfile [add | delete] "<filename>"}
                                   {palfuncparam <samples>{,<maxdeviation>}}
                                   {"<fontname>"} {<fontsize>}
     
     

where <mode> is `landscape`, `portrait`, `eps` or `default`; `enhanced` enables enhanced text mode features (subscripts, superscripts and mixed fonts). See `enhanced` for more information. Option `color` enables color; `blacktext` forces all text to be written in black even in color mode; `solid` draws all plots with solid lines, overriding any dashed patterns; `dashlength` or `dl` scales the length of the dashed-line segments by <DL> (which is a floating-point number greater than zero); `linewidth` or `lw` scales all linewidths by <LW>; <duplexing> is `defaultplex`, `simplex` or `duplex` ("duplexing" in PostScript is the ability of the printer to print on both sides of the same page--don't set this if your printer can't do it); `rounded` sets line caps and line joins to be rounded; `butt` is the default, butt caps and mitered joins; `"<fontname>"` is the name of a valid PostScript font; and `<fontsize>` is the size of the font in PostScript points. In addition to the standard postscript fonts, an oblique version of the Symbol font, useful for mathematics, is defined. It is called" "Symbol-Oblique".

`default` mode sets all options to their defaults: `landscape`, `monochrome`, `dashed`, `dl 1.0`, `lw 1.0`, `defaultplex`, `noenhanced`, "Helvetica" and 14pt. Default size of a PostScript plot is 10 inches wide and 7 inches high.

`palfuncparam` is only available if compiled with pm3d support. It controls how `set palette functions` are encoded as gradients in the output. Analytic color component functions (set via `set palette functions`) are encoded as linear interpolated gradients in the postscript output: The color component functions are sampled at <samples> points and all points are removed from this gradient which can be removed without changing the resulting colors by more than <maxdeviation>. For almost every useful palette you may savely leave the defaults of <samples>=2000 and <maxdeviation>=0.003 untouched.

`eps` mode generates EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) output, which is just regular PostScript with some additional lines that allow the file to be imported into a variety of other applications. (The added lines are PostScript comment lines, so the file may still be printed by itself.) To get EPS output, use the `eps` mode and make only one plot per file. In `eps` mode the whole plot, including the fonts, is reduced to half of the default size.

Fonts listed by `fontfile` or `fontfile add` encapsulate the font definitions of the listed font from a postscript Type 1 or TrueType font file directly into the gnuplot output postscript file. Thus, the enclosed font can be used in labels, titles, etc. See the section `postscript fontfile` for more details. With `fontfile delete` a fontfile is deleted from the list of embedded files.

Examples:

           set terminal postscript default       # old postscript
           set terminal postscript enhanced      # old enhpost
           set terminal postscript landscape 22  # old psbig
           set terminal postscript eps 14        # old epsf1
           set terminal postscript eps 22        # old epsf2
           set size 0.7,1.4; set term post portrait color "Times-Roman" 14
           set term post "VAGRoundedBT_Regular" 14 fontfile "bvrr8a.pfa"
     
     

Linewidths and pointsizes may be changed with `set style line`.

The postscript driver supports about 70 distinct pointtypes, selectable through the `pointtype` option on `plot` and `set style line`.

Several possibly useful files about `gnuplot`'s PostScript are included in the /docs/psdoc subdirectory of the `gnuplot` distribution and at the distribution sites. These are "ps_symbols.gpi" (a `gnuplot` command file that, when executed, creates the file "ps_symbols.ps" which shows all the symbols available through the postscript terminal), "ps_guide.ps" (a PostScript file that contains a summary of the enhanced syntax and a page showing what the octal codes produce with text and symbol fonts), "ps_file.doc" (a text file that contains a discussion of the organization of a PostScript file written by `gnuplot`), and "ps_fontfile_doc.tex" (a LaTeX file which contains a short documentation concerning the encapsulation of LaTeX fonts with a glyph table of the math fonts).

A PostScript file is editable, so once `gnuplot` has created one, you are free to modify it to your heart's desire. See the postscript section for some hints.

-- ENHANCED POSTSCRIPT --

Several terminal types support an enhanced text mode in which additional formatting information is embedded in the text string.

      Control      Examples        Explanation
       ^           a^x             superscript
       _           a_x             subscript
       @           @x or a@^b_c    phantom box (occupies no width)
       &           &{space}        inserts space of specified length
       ~           ~a{.8-}         overprints '-' on 'a', raised by .8
                                   times the current fontsize
     
     

Braces can be used to place multiple-character text where a single character is expected (e.g., 2^{10}). To change the font and/or size, use the full form: {/[fontname][=fontsize | *fontscale] text}. Thus {/Symbol=20 G} is a 20-point GAMMA and {/*0.75 K} is a K at three-quarters of whatever fontsize is currently in effect. (The '/' character MUST be the first character after the '{'.)

If the encoding vector has been changed by encoding, the default encoding vector can be used instead by following the slash with a dash. This is unnecessary if you use the Symbol font, however--since /Symbol uses its own encoding vector, `gnuplot` will not apply any other encoding vector to it.

The phantom box is useful for a@^b_c to align superscripts and subscripts but does not work well for overwriting an accent on a letter. (To do the latter, it is much better to use 'set encoding iso_8859_1' to change to the ISO Latin-1 encoding vector, which contains a large variety of letters with accents or other diacritical marks.) Since the box is non-spacing, it is sensible to put the shorter of the subscript or superscript in the box (that is, after the @).

Space equal in length to a string can be inserted using the '&' character. Thus

             'abc&{def}ghi'
     

would produce

             'abc   ghi'.
     
     

The '~' character causes the next character or bracketed text to be overprinted by the following character or bracketed text. The second text will be horizontally centered on the first. Thus '~a/' will result in an 'a' with a slash through it. You can also shift the second text vertically by preceding the second text with a number, which will define the fraction of the current fontsize by which the text will be raised or lowered. In this case the number and text must be enclosed in brackets because more than one character is necessary. If the overprinted text begins with a number, put a space between the vertical offset and the text ('~{abc}{.5 000}'); otherwise no space is needed ('~{abc}{.5--}'). You can change the font for one or both strings ('~a{.5 /*.2 o}'--an 'a' with a one-fifth-size 'o' on top--and the space between the number and the slash is necessary), but you can't change it after the beginning of the string. Neither can you use any other special syntax within either string. You can, of course, use control characters by escaping them (see below), such as '~a{\\^}'

You can access special symbols numerically by specifying \\character-code (in octal), e.g., {/Symbol \\245} is the symbol for infinity.

You can escape control characters using \\, e.g., \\\\, \\{, and so on.

But be aware that strings in double-quotes are parsed differently than those enclosed in single-quotes. The major difference is that backslashes may need to be doubled when in double-quoted strings.

Examples (these are hard to describe in words--try them!):

           set xlabel 'Time (10^6 {/Symbol m}s)'
           set title '{/Symbol=18 \\362@_{/=9.6 0}^{/=12 x}} \\
                      {/Helvetica e^{-{/Symbol m}^2/2} d}{/Symbol m}'
     
     

The file "ps_guide.ps" in the /docs/psdoc subdirectory of the `gnuplot` source distribution contains more examples of the enhanced syntax.

-- EDITING POSTSCRIPT --

The PostScript language is a very complex language--far too complex to describe in any detail in this document. Nevertheless there are some things in a PostScript file written by `gnuplot` that can be changed without risk of introducing fatal errors into the file.

For example, the PostScript statement "/Color true def" (written into the file in response to the command `set terminal postscript color`), may be altered in an obvious way to generate a black-and-white version of a plot. Similarly line colors, text colors, line weights and symbol sizes can also be altered in straight-forward ways. Text (titles and labels) can be edited to correct misspellings or to change fonts. Anything can be repositioned, and of course anything can be added or deleted, but modifications such as these may require deeper knowledge of the PostScript language.

The organization of a PostScript file written by `gnuplot` is discussed in the text file "ps_file.doc" in the docs/ps subdirectory of the gnuplot source distribution.

-- POSTSCRIPT FONTFILE --

The `fontfile` or `fontfile add` option takes one file name as argument and encapsulates this file into the postscript output in order to make this font available for text elements (labels, tic marks, titles, etc.). The `fontfile delete` option also takes one file name as argument. It deletes this file name from the list of encapsulated files.

The postscript terminal understands some font file formats: Type 1 fonts in ASCII file format (extension ".pfa"), Type 1 fonts in binary file format (extension ".pfb"), and TrueType fonts (extension ".ttf"). Pfa files are understood directly, pfb and ttf files are converted on the fly if appropriate conversion tools are installed (see below). You have to specify the full filename with the extension. Each `fontfile` option takes exact one font file name. This option can be used multiple times in order to include more than one font file.

The font file is searched in the working directory and in all directories listed in the fontpath which is determined by fontpath. In addition, the fontpath can be set using the environment variable GNUPLOT_FONTPATH. If this is not set a system dependent default search list is used. See fontpath for more details.

For using the encapsulated font file you have to specify the font name (which normally is not the same as the file name). When embedding a font file by using the `fontfile` option in interactive mode, the font name is printed on the screen. E.g.

        Font file 'p052004l.pfb' contains the font 'URWPalladioL-Bold'. Location:
        /usr/lib/X11/fonts/URW/p052004l.pfb
     
     

When using pfa or pfb fonts, you can also find it out by looking into the font file. There is a line similar to "/FontName /URWPalladioL-Bold def". The middle string without the slash is the fontname, here "URWPalladioL-Bold". For TrueType fonts, this is not so easy since the font name is stored in a binary format. In addition, they often have spaces in the font names which is not supported by Type 1 fonts (in which a TrueType is converted on the fly). The font names are changed in order to eliminate the spaces in the fontnames. The easiest way to find out which font name is generated for use with gnuplot, start gnuplot in interactive mode and type in "set terminal postscript fontfile '<filename.ttf>'".

For converting font files to pfa format the conversion tool has to read the font from a file and write it to standard output. For pfb files "pfbtops" is a tool which can do this. If this program is installed on your system the on the fly conversion should work. Just try to encapsulate a pfb file. If the compiled in program call does not work correctly you can specify how this program is called by defining the environment variable GNUPLOT_PFBTOPFA e.g. to "pfbtops %s". The `%s` will be repeated by the font file name and thus has to exist in the string. If you don't want to do the conversion on the fly but get a pfa file of the font you can use the tool "pfb2pfa" which is written in simple c and should compile with any c compiler. It is available from many ftp servers, e.g. ftp://ftp.dante.de/tex-archive/fonts/utilities/ps2mf/ In fact, "pfbtopfa" and "pfb2ps" do the same job. "pfbtopfa" puts the resulting pfa code into a file, whereas "pfbtops" writes it to standard output.

TrueType fonts are converted into Type 1 pfa format, e.g. by using the tool "ttf2pt1" which is available from http://ttf2pt1.sourceforge.net/ If the builtin conversion does not work, the conversion command can be changed by the environment variable GNUPLOT_TTFTOPFA. For usage with ttf2pt1 it may be set to "ttf2pt1 -a -e -W 0 %s - ". Here again, `%s` stands for the file name.

For special purposes you also can use a pipe (if available for your operating system). Therefore you start the file name definition with the character "<" and append a program call. This program has to write pfa data to standard output. Thus, a pfa file may be accessed by `set fontfile "< cat garamond.pfa"`.

For example, including Type 1 font files can be used for including the postscript output in LaTeX documents. The "european computer modern" font (which is a variant of the "computer modern" font) is available in pfb format from any CTAN server, e.g. ftp://ftp.dante.de/tex-archive/fonts/ps-type1/cm-super/ For example, the file "sfrm1000.pfb" contains the normal upright fonts with serifs in the design size 10pt (font name "SFRM1000"). The computer modern fonts, which are still necessary for mathematics, are available from ftp://ftp.dante.de/tex-archive/fonts/cm/ps-type1/bluesky With these you can use any character available in TeX. However, the computer modern fonts have a strange encoding. (This is why you should not use cmr10.pfb for text, but sfrm1000.pfb instead.) The usage of TeX fonts is shown in one of the demos. The file "ps_fontfile_doc.tex" in the /docs/psdoc subdirectory of the `gnuplot` source distribution contains a table with glyphs of the TeX mathfonts.

If the font "CMEX10" is embedded (file "cmex10.pfb") gnuplot defines the additional font "CMEX10-Baseline". It is shifted vertically in order to fit better to the other glyphs (CMEX10 has its baseline at the top of the symbols)."


Node: pslatex_and_pstex, Next: , Previous: postscript_, Up: terminal

pslatex and pstex

The `pslatex` and `pstex` drivers generate output for further processing by LaTeX and TeX, respectively. Figures generated by `pstex` can be included in any plain-based format (including LaTeX).

Syntax:

           set terminal [pslatex | pstex] {<color>} {<dashed>} {<rotate>}
                                          {auxfile} {<font_size>}
     
     

<color> is either `color` or `monochrome`. <dashed> is either `dashed` or `solid`. <rotate> is either `rotate` or `norotate` and determines if the y-axis label is rotated. <font_size> is the size (in pts) of the desired font.

If `auxfile` is specified, it directs the driver to put the PostScript commands into an auxiliary file instead of directly into the LaTeX file. This is useful if your pictures are large enough that dvips cannot handle them. The name of the auxiliary PostScript file is derived from the name of the TeX file given on the output command; it is determined by replacing the trailing `.tex` (actually just the final extent in the file name) with `.ps` in the output file name, or, if the TeX file has no extension, `.ps` is appended. Remember to close the file before leaving `gnuplot`. The `.ps` is included into the `.tex` file by a \\special{psfile=...} command. If you would rather prefer \\includegraphics{...}, then use the `epslatex` terminal.

All drivers for LaTeX offer a special way of controlling text positioning: (a) If any text string begins with '{', you also need to include a '}' at the end of the text, and the whole text will be centered both horizontally and vertically by LaTeX. (b) If the text string begins with '[', you need to continue it with: a position specification (up to two out of t,b,l,r), ']{', the text itself, and finally, '}'. The text itself may be anything LaTeX can typeset as an LR-box. \\rule{}{}'s may help for best positioning.

Examples:

           set term pslatex monochrome dashed rotate       # set to defaults
     

To write the PostScript commands into the file "foo.ps":

           set term pslatex auxfile
           set output "foo.tex"; plot ...; set output
     

About label positioning: Use gnuplot defaults (mostly sensible, but sometimes not really best):

            set title '\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $'
     

Force centering both horizontally and vertically:

            set label '{\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $}' at 0,0
     

Specify own positioning (top here):

            set xlabel '[t]{\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $}'
     

The other label - account for long ticlabels:

            set ylabel '[r]{\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $\\rule{7mm}{0pt}}'
     
     

Linewidths and pointsizes may be changed with `set style line`."


Node: pstricks, Next: , Previous: pslatex_and_pstex, Up: terminal

pstricks

The `pstricks` driver is intended for use with the "pstricks.sty" macro package for LaTeX. It is an alternative to the `eepic` and `latex` drivers. You need "pstricks.sty", and, of course, a printer that understands PostScript, or a converter such as Ghostscript.

PSTricks is available via anonymous ftp from the /pub directory at Princeton.edu. This driver definitely does not come close to using the full capability of the PSTricks package.

Syntax:

           set terminal pstricks {hacktext | nohacktext} {unit | nounit}
     
     

The first option invokes an ugly hack that gives nicer numbers; the second has to do with plot scaling. The defaults are `hacktext` and `nounit`."


Node: qms, Next: , Previous: pstricks, Up: terminal

qms

The `qms` terminal driver supports the QMS/QUIC Laser printer, the Talaris 1200 and others. It has no options."


Node: regis, Next: , Previous: qms, Up: terminal

regis

The `regis` terminal device generates output in the REGIS graphics language. It has the option of using 4 (the default) or 16 colors.

Syntax:

           set terminal regis {4 | 16}"
     
     


Node: regis_, Next: , Previous: regis, Up: terminal

regis

The `regis` terminal device generates output in the REGIS graphics language. It has the option of using 4 (the default) or 16 colors.

Syntax:

           set terminal regis {4 | 16}"
     
     


Node: rgip, Next: , Previous: regis_, Up: terminal

rgip

The `rgip` and `uniplex` terminal drivers support RGIP metafiles. They can combine several graphs on a single page, but only one page is allowed in a given output file.

Syntax:

           set terminal rgip | uniplex {portrait | landscape}
                                       {[<horiz>,<vert>]} {<fontsize>}
     
     

permissible values for the font size are in the range 1-8, with the default being 1. The default layout is landscape. Graphs are placed on the page in a `horiz`x`vert` grid, which defaults to [1,1].

Example:

           set terminal uniplex portrait [2,3]
     
     

puts six graphs on a page in three rows of two in portrait orientation."


Node: sun, Next: , Previous: rgip, Up: terminal

sun

The `sun` terminal driver supports the SunView window system. It has no options."


Node: svg, Next: , Previous: sun, Up: terminal

svg

This terminal produces files in the W3C Scalable Vector Graphics format.

Syntax:

           set terminal svg {size <x> <y> {|fixed|dynamic}}
                            {fname "<font>"} {fsize <fontsize>}
                            {{no}enhanced} {fontfile <filename>}
     
     

where <x> and <y> are the size of the SVG plot to generate, `dynamic` allows a svg-Viewer to resize plot, whereas the default setting, `fixed`, will request an absolute size.

<font> is the name of the default font to use (default Arial) and <fontsize> is the font size (in points, default 12). Gnuplot does not currently provide a mechanism for embedding fonts in the output file, so svg viewing programs may substitute other fonts when the file is displayed.

The svg terminal supports an enhanced text mode, which allows font and other formatting commands to be embedded in labels and other text strings. The enhanced text mode syntax is shared with other gnuplot terminal types. See `enhanced` for more details.

SVG allows you to embed fonts directly into an SVG document, or to provide a hypertext link to the desired font. The `fontfile` option specifies a local file which is copied into the <defs> section of the resulting SVG output file. This file may either itself contain a font, or may contain the records necessary to create a hypertext reference to the desired font. Gnuplot will look for the requested file using the directory list in the GNUPLOT_FONTPATH environmental variable."


Node: tek410x, Next: , Previous: svg, Up: terminal

tek410x

The `tek410x` terminal driver supports the 410x and 420x family of Tektronix terminals. It has no options."


Node: tek410x_, Next: , Previous: tek410x, Up: terminal

tek410x

The `tek410x` terminal driver supports the 410x and 420x family of Tektronix terminals. It has no options."


Node: table, Next: , Previous: tek410x_, Up: terminal

table

Instead of producing a graph, the `table` terminal prints out the points on which a graph would be based, i.e., the results of processing the `plot` or `splot` command, in a multicolumn ASCII table of X Y {Z} R values. The character R takes on one of three values: "i" if the point is in the active range, "o" if it is out-of-range, or "u" if it is undefined. The data format is determined by the format of the axis labels (see `set format`), and the columns are separated by single spaces.

For those times when you want the numbers, you can display them on the screen or save them to a file. This can be useful if you want to generate contours and then save them for further use, perhaps for plotting with `plot`; see contour for an example. The same method can be used to save interpolated data (see samples and dgrid3d)."


Node: tek40, Next: , Previous: table, Up: terminal

tek40

This family of terminal drivers supports a variety of VT-like terminals. `tek40xx` supports Tektronix 4010 and others as well as most TEK emulators; `vttek` supports VT-like tek40xx terminal emulators; `kc-tek40xx` supports MS-DOS Kermit Tek4010 terminal emulators in color: `km-tek40xx` supports them in monochrome; `selanar` supports Selanar graphics; and `bitgraph` supports BBN Bitgraph terminals. None have any options."


Node: texdraw, Next: , Previous: tek40, Up: terminal

texdraw

The `texdraw` terminal driver supports the LaTeX texdraw environment. It is intended for use with "texdraw.sty" and "texdraw.tex" in the texdraw package.

Points, among other things, are drawn using the LaTeX commands "\\Diamond" and "\\Box". These commands no longer belong to the LaTeX2e core; they are included in the latexsym package, which is part of the base distribution and thus part of any LaTeX implementation. Please do not forget to use this package.

It has no options."


Node: tgif, Next: , Previous: texdraw, Up: terminal

tgif

Tgif is an X11-based drawing tool--it has nothing to do with GIF.

The `tgif` driver supports different pointsizes (with pointsize), different label fonts and font sizes (e.g. `set label "Hallo" at x,y font "Helvetica,34"`) and multiple graphs on the page. The proportions of the axes are not changed.

Syntax:

           set terminal tgif {portrait | landscape} {<[x,y]>}
                             {solid | dashed}
                             {"<fontname>"} {<fontsize>}
     
     

where <[x,y]> specifies the number of graphs in the x and y directions on the page, "<fontname>" is the name of a valid PostScript font, and <fontsize> specifies the size of the PostScript font. Defaults are `portrait`, `[1,1]`, `dashed`, `"Helvetica"`, and `18`.

The `solid` option is usually prefered if lines are colored, as they often are in the editor. Hardcopy will be black-and-white, so `dashed` should be chosen for that.

Multiplot is implemented in two different ways.

The first multiplot implementation is the standard gnuplot multiplot feature:

           set terminal tgif
           set output "file.obj"
           set multiplot
           set origin x01,y01
           set size  xs,ys
           plot ...
                ...
           set origin x02,y02
           plot ...
           set nomultiplot
     
     

See multiplot for further information.

The second version is the [x,y] option for the driver itself. The advantage of this implementation is that everything is scaled and placed automatically without the need for setting origins and sizes; the graphs keep their natural x/y proportions of 3/2 (or whatever is fixed by size).

If both multiplot methods are selected, the standard method is chosen and a warning message is given.

Examples of single plots (or standard multiplot):

           set terminal tgif                  # defaults
           set terminal tgif "Times-Roman" 24
           set terminal tgif landscape
           set terminal tgif landscape solid
     
     

Examples using the built-in multiplot mechanism:

           set terminal tgif portrait [2,4]  # portrait; 2 plots in the x-
                                             # and 4 in the y-direction
           set terminal tgif [1,2]           # portrait; 1 plot in the x-
                                             # and 2 in the y-direction
           set terminal tgif landscape [3,3] # landscape; 3 plots in both
                                             # directions"
     
     


Node: tgif_, Next: , Previous: tgif, Up: terminal

tgif

Tgif is an X11-based drawing tool--it has nothing to do with GIF.

The `tgif` driver supports different pointsizes (with pointsize), different label fonts and font sizes (e.g. `set label "Hallo" at x,y font "Helvetica,34"`) and multiple graphs on the page. The proportions of the axes are not changed.

Syntax:

           set terminal tgif {portrait | landscape} {<[x,y]>}
                             {solid | dashed}
                             {"<fontname>"} {<fontsize>}
     
     

where <[x,y]> specifies the number of graphs in the x and y directions on the page, "<fontname>" is the name of a valid PostScript font, and <fontsize> specifies the size of the PostScript font. Defaults are `portrait`, `[1,1]`, `dashed`, `"Helvetica"`, and `18`.

The `solid` option is usually prefered if lines are colored, as they often are in the editor. Hardcopy will be black-and-white, so `dashed` should be chosen for that.

Multiplot is implemented in two different ways.

The first multiplot implementation is the standard gnuplot multiplot feature:

           set terminal tgif
           set output "file.obj"
           set multiplot
           set origin x01,y01
           set size  xs,ys
           plot ...
                ...
           set origin x02,y02
           plot ...
           set nomultiplot
     
     

See multiplot for further information.

The second version is the [x,y] option for the driver itself. The advantage of this implementation is that everything is scaled and placed automatically without the need for setting origins and sizes; the graphs keep their natural x/y proportions of 3/2 (or whatever is fixed by size).

If both multiplot methods are selected, the standard method is chosen and a warning message is given.

Examples of single plots (or standard multiplot):

           set terminal tgif                  # defaults
           set terminal tgif "Times-Roman" 24
           set terminal tgif landscape
           set terminal tgif landscape solid
     
     

Examples using the built-in multiplot mechanism:

           set terminal tgif portrait [2,4]  # portrait; 2 plots in the x-
                                             # and 4 in the y-direction
           set terminal tgif [1,2]           # portrait; 1 plot in the x-
                                             # and 2 in the y-direction
           set terminal tgif landscape [3,3] # landscape; 3 plots in both
                                             # directions"
     
     


Node: tkcanvas, Next: , Previous: tgif_, Up: terminal

tkcanvas

This terminal driver generates Tk canvas widget commands based on Tcl/Tk (default) or Perl. To use it, rebuild `gnuplot` (after uncommenting or inserting the appropriate line in "term.h"), then

      gnuplot> set term tkcanvas {perltk} {interactive}
      gnuplot> set output 'plot.file'
     
     

After invoking "wish", execute the following sequence of Tcl/Tk commands:

      % source plot.file
      % canvas .c
      % pack .c
      % gnuplot .c
     
     

Or, for Perl/Tk use a program like this:

      use Tk;
      my $top = MainWindow->new;
      my $c = $top->Canvas->pack;
      my $gnuplot = do "plot.pl";
      $gnuplot->($c);
      MainLoop;
     
     

The code generated by `gnuplot` creates a procedure called "gnuplot" that takes the name of a canvas as its argument. When the procedure is called, it clears the canvas, finds the size of the canvas and draws the plot in it, scaled to fit.

For 2-dimensional plotting (`plot`) two additional procedures are defined: "gnuplot_plotarea" will return a list containing the borders of the plotting area "xleft, xright, ytop, ybot" in canvas screen coordinates, while the ranges of the two axes "x1min, x1max, y1min, y1max, x2min, x2max, y2min, y2max" in plot coordinates can be obtained calling "gnuplot_axisranges". If the "interactive" option is specified, mouse clicking on a line segment will print the coordinates of its midpoint to stdout. Advanced actions can happen instead if the user supplies a procedure named "user_gnuplot_coordinates", which takes the following arguments: "win id x1s y1s x2s y2s x1e y1e x2e y2e x1m y1m x2m y2m", the name of the canvas and the id of the line segment followed by the coordinates of its start and end point in the two possible axis ranges; the coordinates of the midpoint are only filled for logarithmic axes.

The current version of `tkcanvas` supports neither multiplot nor replot."


Node: tpic, Next: , Previous: tkcanvas, Up: terminal

tpic

The `tpic` terminal driver supports the LaTeX picture environment with tpic \\specials. It is an alternative to the `latex` and `eepic` terminal drivers. Options are the point size, line width, and dot-dash interval.

Syntax:

           set terminal tpic <pointsize> <linewidth> <interval>
     
     

where pointsize and `linewidth` are integers in milli-inches and `interval` is a float in inches. If a non-positive value is specified, the default is chosen: pointsize = 40, linewidth = 6, interval = 0.1.

All drivers for LaTeX offer a special way of controlling text positioning: If any text string begins with '{', you also need to include a '}' at the end of the text, and the whole text will be centered both horizontally and vertically by LaTeX. -- If the text string begins with '[', you need to continue it with: a position specification (up to two out of t,b,l,r), ']{', the text itself, and finally, '}'. The text itself may be anything LaTeX can typeset as an LR-box. \\rule{}{}'s may help for best positioning.

Examples: About label positioning: Use gnuplot defaults (mostly sensible, but sometimes not really best):

            set title '\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $'
     

Force centering both horizontally and vertically:

            set label '{\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $}' at 0,0
     

Specify own positioning (top here):

            set xlabel '[t]{\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $}'
     

The other label - account for long ticlabels:

            set ylabel '[r]{\\LaTeX\\ -- $ \\gamma $\\rule{7mm}{0pt}}'"
     
     


Node: unixpc, Next: , Previous: tpic, Up: terminal

unixpc

The `unixpc` terminal driver supports AT&T 3b1 and AT&T 7300 Unix PC. It has no options."


Node: unixplot, Next: , Previous: unixpc, Up: terminal

unixplot

The `unixplot` terminal driver generates output in the Unix "plot" graphics language. It has no options.

This terminal cannot be compiled if the GNU version of plot is to be used; in that case, use the `gnugraph` terminal instead."


Node: vx384, Next: , Previous: unixplot, Up: terminal

vx384

The `vx384` terminal driver supports the Vectrix 384 and Tandy color printers. It has no options."


Node: vgagl, Next: , Previous: vx384, Up: terminal

vgagl

The `vgagl` driver is a fast linux console driver with full mouse and pm3d support. It looks at the environment variable SVGALIB_DEFAULT_MODE for the default mode; if not set, it uses a 256 color mode with the highest available resolution.

Syntax:

        set terminal vgagl \\
                     background [red] [[green] [blue]] \\
                     [uniform | interpolate] \\
                     [dump "file"] \\
                     [mode]
     
     

The color mode can also be given with the mode option. Both Symbolic names as G1024x768x256 and integers are allowed. The `background` option takes either one or three integers in the range [0, 255]. If only one integers is supplied, it is taken as gray value for the background. If three integers are present, the background gets the corresponding color. The (mutually exclusive) options `interpolate` and `uniform` control if color interpolation is done while drawing triangles (on by default).

A file can be specified with the `dump "file"` option. If this option is present, (i.e the dump file name is not empty) pressing the key KP_Delete will write the file. This action cannot and cannot be rebound. The file is written in raw ppm (P6) format. Note that this option is reset each time the `set term` command is issued.

To get high resolution modes, you will probably have to modify the configuration file of libvga, usually /etc/vga/libvga.conf. Using the VESA fb is a good choice, but this needs to be compiled in the kernel.

The vgagl driver uses the first *available* vga mode from the following list:

      - the driver which was supplied when setting vgagl, e.g. `set term vgagl
        G1024x768x256` would first check, if the G1024x768x256 mode is available.
      - the environment variable SVGALIB_DEFAULT_MODE
      - G1024x768x256
      - G800x600x256
      - G640x480x256
      - G320x200x256
      - G1280x1024x256
      - G1152x864x256
      - G1360x768x256
      - G1600x1200x256
     
     


Node: VWS, Next: , Previous: vgagl, Up: terminal

VWS

The `VWS` terminal driver supports the VAX Windowing System. It has no options. It will sense the display type (monochrome, gray scale, or color.) All line styles are plotted as solid lines."


Node: windows, Next: , Previous: VWS, Up: terminal

windows

Three options may be set in the `windows` terminal driver.

Syntax:

           set terminal windows {<color>} {"<fontname>"} {<fontsize>}
     
     

where `<color>` is either `color` or `monochrome`, `"<fontname>"` is the name of a valid Windows font, and `<fontsize>` is the size of the font in points.

Other options may be set with the graph-menu, the initialization file, and `set linestyle`. Note that there is one restriction imposed by the classic Windows GDI interface: modifiable linewidth only works with solid lines, not with dotted or dashed ones. /* Does this really belong here? If not, someone move it where it does. */

The Windows version normally terminates immediately as soon as the end of any files given as command line arguments is reached (i.e. in non-interactive mode), unless you specify `-` as the last command line option. It will also not show the text-window at all, in this mode, only the plot. By giving the optional argument `-persist` (same as for gnuplot under x11; former Windows-only options `/noend` or `-noend` are still accepted as well), will not close gnuplot. Contrary to gnuplot on other operating systems, gnuplot's interactive command line is accessible after the -persist option.

-- GRAPH-MENU --

The `gnuplot graph` window has the following options on a pop-up menu accessed by pressing the right mouse button or selecting `Options` from the system menu:

`Bring to Top` when checked brings the graph window to the top after every plot.

`Color` when checked enables color linestyles. When unchecked it forces monochrome linestyles.

`Copy to Clipboard` copies a bitmap and a Metafile picture.

`Background...` sets the window background color.

`Choose Font...` selects the font used in the graphics window.

`Line Styles...` allows customization of the line colors and styles.

`Print...` prints the graphics windows using a Windows printer driver and allows selection of the printer and scaling of the output. The output produced by `Print` is not as good as that from `gnuplot`'s own printer drivers.

`Update wgnuplot.ini` saves the current window locations, window sizes, text window font, text window font size, graph window font, graph window font size, background color and linestyles to the initialization file `WGNUPLOT.INI`.

-- PRINTING --

In order of preference, graphs may be be printed in the following ways.

`1.` Use the `gnuplot` command terminal to select a printer and output to redirect output to a file.

`2.` Select the `Print...` command from the `gnuplot graph` window. An extra command `screendump` does this from the text window.

`3.` If `set output "PRN"` is used, output will go to a temporary file. When you exit from `gnuplot` or when you change the output with another output command, a dialog box will appear for you to select a printer port. If you choose OK, the output will be printed on the selected port, passing unmodified through the print manager. It is possible to accidentally (or deliberately) send printer output meant for one printer to an incompatible printer.

-- TEXT-MENU --

The `gnuplot text` window has the following options on a pop-up menu accessed by pressing the right mouse button or selecting `Options` from the system menu:

`Copy to Clipboard` copies marked text to the clipboard.

`Paste` copies text from the clipboard as if typed by the user.

`Choose Font...` selects the font used in the text window.

`System Colors` when selected makes the text window honor the System Colors set using the Control Panel. When unselected, text is black or blue on a white background.

`Update wgnuplot.ini` saves the current text window location, text window size, text window font and text window font size to the initialisation file `WGNUPLOT.INI`.

`MENU BAR`

If the menu file `WGNUPLOT.MNU` is found in the same directory as WGNUPLOT.EXE, then the menu specified in `WGNUPLOT.MNU` will be loaded. Menu commands:

[Menu] starts a new menu with the name on the following line.

[EndMenu] ends the current menu.

[-] inserts a horizontal menu separator.

[|] inserts a vertical menu separator.

[Button] puts the next macro on a push button instead of a menu.

Macros take two lines with the macro name (menu entry) on the first line and the macro on the second line. Leading spaces are ignored. Macro commands:

[INPUT] -- Input string with prompt terminated by [EOS] or {ENTER}

[EOS] -- End Of String terminator. Generates no output.

[OPEN] -- Get name of file to open from list box, with title of list box terminated by [EOS], followed by default filename terminated by [EOS] or {ENTER}. This uses COMMDLG.DLL from Windows 3.1.

[SAVE] -- Get name of file to save. Similar to [OPEN]

Macro character substitutions:

{ENTER} -- Carriage Return '\\r'

{TAB} -- Tab '\\011'

{ESC} -- Escape '\\033'

{^A} -- '\\001'

...

{^_} -- '\\031'

Macros are limited to 256 characters after expansion.

-- WGNUPLOT.INI --

Windows `gnuplot` will read some of its options from the `[WGNUPLOT]` section of `WGNUPLOT.INI` in the Windows directory. A sample `WGNUPLOT.INI` file:

           [WGNUPLOT]
           TextOrigin=0 0
           TextSize=640 150
           TextFont=Terminal,9
           GraphOrigin=0 150
           GraphSize=640 330
           GraphFont=Arial,10
           GraphColor=1
           GraphToTop=1
           GraphBackground=255 255 255
           Border=0 0 0 0 0
           Axis=192 192 192 2 2
           Line1=0 0 255 0 0
           Line2=0 255 0 0 1
           Line3=255 0 0 0 2
           Line4=255 0 255 0 3
           Line5=0 0 128 0 4
     
     

The `GraphFont` entry specifies the font name and size in points. The five numbers given in the `Border`, `Axis` and `Line` entries are the `Red` intensity (0-255), `Green` intensity, `Blue` intensity, `Color Linestyle` and `Mono Linestyle`. `Linestyles` are 0=SOLID, 1=DASH, 2=DOT, 3=DASHDOT, 4=DASHDOTDOT. In the sample `WGNUPLOT.INI` file above, Line 2 is a green solid line in color mode, or a dashed line in monochrome mode. The default line width is 1 pixel. If `Linestyle` is negative, it specifies the width of a SOLID line in pixels. Line1 and any linestyle used with the `points` style must be SOLID with unit width.

-- WINDOWS3.0 --

Windows 3.1 is preferred, but WGNUPLOT will run under Windows 3.0 with the following restrictions: `1.` COMMDLG.DLL and SHELL.DLL (available with Windows 3.1 or Borland C++ 3.1) must be in the windows directory.

`2.` WGNUPLOT.HLP produced by Borland C++ 3.1 is in Windows 3.1 format. You need to use the WINHELP.EXE supplied with Borland C++ 3.1.

`3.` It will not run in real mode due to lack of memory.

`4.` TrueType fonts are not available in the graph window.

`5.` Drag-drop does not work."


Node: x11, Next: , Previous: windows, Up: terminal

x11

`gnuplot` provides the `x11` terminal type for use with X servers. This terminal type is set automatically at startup if the `DISPLAY` environment variable is set, if the `TERM` environment variable is set to `xterm`, or if the `-display` command line option is used.

Syntax:

        set terminal x11 [reset] <n> [[no]enhanced] [font <fontspec>]
                         [title "<string>"] [[no]persist] [[no]raise] [close]
     
     

Multiple plot windows are supported: `set terminal x11 <n>` directs the output to plot window number n. If n>0, the terminal number will be appended to the window title (unless a title has been supplied manually) and the icon will be labeled `gplt <n>`. The active window may be distinguished by a change in cursor (from default to crosshair.)

The x11 terminal support enhanced text mode (see `enhanced`), subject to the available fonts. In order for font size commands embedded in text to have any effect, the default x11 font must be scalable. Thus the first example below will work as expected, but the second will not.

        set term x11 enhanced font "arial,15"
        set title '{\\=20 Big} Medium {\\=5 Small}'
     
     
        set term x11 enhanced font "terminal-14"
        set title '{\\=20 Big} Medium {\\=5 Small}'
     
     

Plot windows remain open even when the `gnuplot` driver is changed to a different device. A plot window can be closed by pressing the letter q while that window has input focus, or by choosing `close` from a window manager menu. All plot windows can be closed by specifying reset, which actually terminates the subprocess which maintains the windows (unless `-persist` was specified). The `close` command can be used to close individual plot windows by number. However, after a reset, those plot windows left due to persist cannot be closed with the command `close`. A `close` without a number closes the current active plot window.

The gnuplot outboard driver, gnuplot_x11, is searched in a default place chosen when the program is compiled. You can override that by defining the environment variable GNUPLOT_DRIVER_DIR to point to a different location.

Plot windows will automatically be closed at the end of the session unless the `-persist` option was given.

The options `persist` and `raise` are unset by default, which means that the defaults (persist == no and raise == yes) or the command line options -persist / -raise or the Xresources are taken. If [no]persist or [no]raise are specified, they will override command line options and Xresources. Setting one of these options takes place immediately, so the behaviour of an already running driver can be modified.

The option `title "<title name>"` will supply the title name of the window for the current plot window or plot window <n> if a number is given. Where (or if) this title is shown depends on your X window manager.

The size or aspect ratio of a plot may be changed by resizing the `gnuplot` window.

Linewidths and pointsizes may be changed from within `gnuplot` with `set linestyle`.

For terminal type `x11`, `gnuplot` accepts (when initialized) the standard X Toolkit options and resources such as geometry, font, and name from the command line arguments or a configuration file. See the X(1) man page (or its equivalent) for a description of such options.

A number of other `gnuplot` options are available for the `x11` terminal. These may be specified either as command-line options when `gnuplot` is invoked or as resources in the configuration file ".Xdefaults". They are set upon initialization and cannot be altered during a `gnuplot` session. (except `persist` and `raise`)

-- X11_FONTS --

Upon initial startup, the default font is taken from the X11 resources as set in the system or user .Xdefaults file or on the command line.

Example:

           gnuplot*font: lucidasans-bold-12
     

A new default font may be specified to the x11 driver from inside gnuplot using

          `set term x11 font "<fontspec>"`
     

The driver first queries the X-server for a font of the exact name given, for example `set term x11 font "lucidasans-10"`. If this query fails, then it tries to interpret <fontspec> as "<font>,<size>,<slant>,<weight>" and to construct a full X11 font name of the form

           -*-<font>-<weight>-<s>-*-*-<size>-*-*-*-*-*-<encoding>
     
     
      <font> is the base name of the font (e.g. Times or Symbol)
      <size> is the point size (defaults to 12 if not specified)
      <s> is `i` if <slant>=="italic" `o` if <slant>=="oblique" `r` otherwise
      <weight> is `medium` or `bold` if explicitly requested, otherwise `*`
      <encoding> is set based on the current character set (see help for encoding).
     

So `set term x11 font "arial,15,italic"` will be translated to -*-arial-*-i-*-*-15-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1 (assuming default encoding). The <size>, <slant>, and <weight> specifications are all optional. If you do not specify <slant> or <weight> then you will get whatever font variant the font server offers first. The driver also recognizes some common PostScript font names and replaces them with possible X11 or TrueType equivalents. This same sequence is used to process font requests from label.

-- COMMAND-LINE_OPTIONS --

In addition to the X Toolkit options, the following options may be specified on the command line when starting `gnuplot` or as resources in your ".Xdefaults" file (note that `raise` and `persist` can be overridden later by `set term x11 [no]raise [no]persist)`:

      `-mono`     forces monochrome rendering on color displays.
      `-gray`     requests grayscale rendering on grayscale or color displays.
                  (Grayscale displays receive monochrome rendering by default.)
      `-clear`    requests that the window be cleared momentarily before a
                  new plot is displayed.
      `-tvtwm`    requests that geometry specifications for position of the
                  window be made relative to the currently displayed portion
                  of the virtual root.
      `-raise`    raises plot window after each plot
      `-noraise`  does not raise plot window after each plot
      `-noevents` does not process mouse and key events
      `-persist`  plot windows survive after main gnuplot program exits
     
     

The options are shown above in their command-line syntax. When entered as resources in ".Xdefaults", they require a different syntax.

Example:

           gnuplot*gray: on
     
     

`gnuplot` also provides a command line option (`-pointsize <v>`) and a resource, `gnuplot*pointsize: <v>`, to control the size of points plotted with the `points` plotting style. The value `v` is a real number (greater than 0 and less than or equal to ten) used as a scaling factor for point sizes. For example, `-pointsize 2` uses points twice the default size, and `-pointsize 0.5` uses points half the normal size.

The `-noevents` switch disables all mouse and key event processing (except for `q` and `<space>` for closing the window). This is useful for programs which use the x11 driver independent of the gnuplot main program.

-- MONOCHROME_OPTIONS --

For monochrome displays, `gnuplot` does not honor foreground or background colors. The default is black-on-white. `-rv` or `gnuplot*reverseVideo: on` requests white-on-black.

-- COLOR_RESOURCES --

For color displays, `gnuplot` honors the following resources (shown here with their default values) or the greyscale resources. The values may be color names as listed in the X11 rgb.txt file on your system, hexadecimal RGB color specifications (see X11 documentation), or a color name followed by a comma and an `intensity` value from 0 to 1. For example, `blue, 0.5` means a half intensity blue.

      gnuplot*background:  white
      gnuplot*textColor:   black
      gnuplot*borderColor: black
      gnuplot*axisColor:   black
      gnuplot*line1Color:  red
      gnuplot*line2Color:  green
      gnuplot*line3Color:  blue
      gnuplot*line4Color:  magenta
      gnuplot*line5Color:  cyan
      gnuplot*line6Color:  sienna
      gnuplot*line7Color:  orange
      gnuplot*line8Color:  coral
     
     

The command-line syntax for these is simple only for background, which maps directly to the usual X11 toolkit option "-bg". All others can only be set on the command line by use of the generic "-xrm" resource override option

Examples:

           gnuplot -background coral
     

to change the background color.

           gnuplot -xrm 'gnuplot*line1Color:blue'
     

to override the first linetype color.

-- GRAYSCALE_RESOURCES --

When `-gray` is selected, `gnuplot` honors the following resources for grayscale or color displays (shown here with their default values). Note that the default background is black.

      gnuplot*background: black
      gnuplot*textGray:   white
      gnuplot*borderGray: gray50
      gnuplot*axisGray:   gray50
      gnuplot*line1Gray:  gray100
      gnuplot*line2Gray:  gray60
      gnuplot*line3Gray:  gray80
      gnuplot*line4Gray:  gray40
      gnuplot*line5Gray:  gray90
      gnuplot*line6Gray:  gray50
      gnuplot*line7Gray:  gray70
      gnuplot*line8Gray:  gray30
     
     

-- LINE_RESOURCES --

`gnuplot` honors the following resources for setting the width (in pixels) of plot lines (shown here with their default values.) 0 or 1 means a minimal width line of 1 pixel width. A value of 2 or 3 may improve the appearance of some plots.

      gnuplot*borderWidth: 2
      gnuplot*axisWidth:   0
      gnuplot*line1Width:  0
      gnuplot*line2Width:  0
      gnuplot*line3Width:  0
      gnuplot*line4Width:  0
      gnuplot*line5Width:  0
      gnuplot*line6Width:  0
      gnuplot*line7Width:  0
      gnuplot*line8Width:  0
     
     

`gnuplot` honors the following resources for setting the dash style used for plotting lines. 0 means a solid line. A two-digit number `jk` (`j` and `k` are >= 1 and <= 9) means a dashed line with a repeated pattern of `j` pixels on followed by `k` pixels off. For example, '16' is a "dotted" line with one pixel on followed by six pixels off. More elaborate on/off patterns can be specified with a four-digit value. For example, '4441' is four on, four off, four on, one off. The default values shown below are for monochrome displays or monochrome rendering on color or grayscale displays. For color displays, the default for each is 0 (solid line) except for `axisDashes` which defaults to a '16' dotted line.

      gnuplot*borderDashes:   0
      gnuplot*axisDashes:    16
      gnuplot*line1Dashes:    0
      gnuplot*line2Dashes:   42
      gnuplot*line3Dashes:   13
      gnuplot*line4Dashes:   44
      gnuplot*line5Dashes:   15
      gnuplot*line6Dashes: 4441
      gnuplot*line7Dashes:   42
      gnuplot*line8Dashes:   13
     
     

, "

-- X11 PM3D_RESOURCES --

Choosing the appropriate visual class and number of colors is a crucial point in X11 applications and a bit awkward, since X11 supports six visual types in different depths.

By default `gnuplot` uses the default visual of the screen. The number of colors which can be allocated depends on the visual class chosen. On a visual class with a depth > 12bit, gnuplot starts with a maximal number of 0x200 colors. On a visual class with a depth > 8bit (but <= 12 bit) the maximal number of colors is 0x100, on <= 8bit displays the maximum number of colors is 240 (16 are left for line colors).

Gnuplot first starts to allocate the maximal number of colors as stated above. If this fails, the number of colors is reduced by the factor 2 until gnuplot gets all colors which are requested. If dividing `maxcolors` by 2 repeatedly results in a number which is smaller than `mincolors` `gnuplot` tries to install a private colormap. In this case the window manager is responsible for swapping colormaps when the pointer is moved in and out the x11 driver's window.

The default for `mincolors` is maxcolors / (num_colormaps > 1 ? 2 : 8), where num_colormaps is the number of colormaps which are currently used by gnuplot (usually 1, if only one x11 window is open).

Some systems support multiple (different) visual classes together on one screen. On these systems it might be necessary to force gnuplot to use a specific visual class, e.g. the default visual might be 8bit PseudoColor but the screen would also support 24bit TrueColor which would be the preferred choice.

The information about an Xserver's capabilities can be obtained with the program `xdpyinfo`. For the visual names below you can choose one of StaticGray, GrayScale, StaticColor, PseudoColor, TrueColor, DirectColor. If an Xserver supports a requested visual type at different depths, `gnuplot` chooses the visual class with the highest depth (deepest). If the requested visual class matches the default visual and multiple classes of this type are supported, the default visual is preferred.

Example: on an 8bit PseudoColor visual you can force a private color map by specifying `gnuplot*maxcolors: 240` and `gnuplot*mincolors: 240`.

      gnuplot*maxcolors:  <integer number>
      gnuplot*mincolors:  <integer number>
      gnuplot*visual:     <visual name>
     
     


Node: x11_, Next: , Previous: x11, Up: terminal

x11

`gnuplot` provides the `x11` terminal type for use with X servers. This terminal type is set automatically at startup if the `DISPLAY` environment variable is set, if the `TERM` environment variable is set to `xterm`, or if the `-display` command line option is used.

Syntax:

        set terminal x11 [reset] <n> [[no]enhanced] [font <fontspec>]
                         [title "<string>"] [[no]persist] [[no]raise] [close]
     
     

Multiple plot windows are supported: `set terminal x11 <n>` directs the output to plot window number n. If n>0, the terminal number will be appended to the window title (unless a title has been supplied manually) and the icon will be labeled `gplt <n>`. The active window may be distinguished by a change in cursor (from default to crosshair.)

The x11 terminal support enhanced text mode (see `enhanced`), subject to the available fonts. In order for font size commands embedded in text to have any effect, the default x11 font must be scalable. Thus the first example below will work as expected, but the second will not.

        set term x11 enhanced font "arial,15"
        set title '{\\=20 Big} Medium {\\=5 Small}'
     
     
        set term x11 enhanced font "terminal-14"
        set title '{\\=20 Big} Medium {\\=5 Small}'
     
     

Plot windows remain open even when the `gnuplot` driver is changed to a different device. A plot window can be closed by pressing the letter q while that window has input focus, or by choosing `close` from a window manager menu. All plot windows can be closed by specifying reset, which actually terminates the subprocess which maintains the windows (unless `-persist` was specified). The `close` command can be used to close individual plot windows by number. However, after a reset, those plot windows left due to persist cannot be closed with the command `close`. A `close` without a number closes the current active plot window.

The gnuplot outboard driver, gnuplot_x11, is searched in a default place chosen when the program is compiled. You can override that by defining the environment variable GNUPLOT_DRIVER_DIR to point to a different location.

Plot windows will automatically be closed at the end of the session unless the `-persist` option was given.

The options `persist` and `raise` are unset by default, which means that the defaults (persist == no and raise == yes) or the command line options -persist / -raise or the Xresources are taken. If [no]persist or [no]raise are specified, they will override command line options and Xresources. Setting one of these options takes place immediately, so the behaviour of an already running driver can be modified.

The option `title "<title name>"` will supply the title name of the window for the current plot window or plot window <n> if a number is given. Where (or if) this title is shown depends on your X window manager.

The size or aspect ratio of a plot may be changed by resizing the `gnuplot` window.

Linewidths and pointsizes may be changed from within `gnuplot` with `set linestyle`.

For terminal type `x11`, `gnuplot` accepts (when initialized) the standard X Toolkit options and resources such as geometry, font, and name from the command line arguments or a configuration file. See the X(1) man page (or its equivalent) for a description of such options.

A number of other `gnuplot` options are available for the `x11` terminal. These may be specified either as command-line options when `gnuplot` is invoked or as resources in the configuration file ".Xdefaults". They are set upon initialization and cannot be altered during a `gnuplot` session. (except `persist` and `raise`)

-- X11_FONTS --

Upon initial startup, the default font is taken from the X11 resources as set in the system or user .Xdefaults file or on the command line.

Example:

           gnuplot*font: lucidasans-bold-12
     

A new default font may be specified to the x11 driver from inside gnuplot using

          `set term x11 font "<fontspec>"`
     

The driver first queries the X-server for a font of the exact name given, for example `set term x11 font "lucidasans-10"`. If this query fails, then it tries to interpret <fontspec> as "<font>,<size>,<slant>,<weight>" and to construct a full X11 font name of the form

           -*-<font>-<weight>-<s>-*-*-<size>-*-*-*-*-*-<encoding>
     
     
      <font> is the base name of the font (e.g. Times or Symbol)
      <size> is the point size (defaults to 12 if not specified)
      <s> is `i` if <slant>=="italic" `o` if <slant>=="oblique" `r` otherwise
      <weight> is `medium` or `bold` if explicitly requested, otherwise `*`
      <encoding> is set based on the current character set (see help for encoding).
     

So `set term x11 font "arial,15,italic"` will be translated to -*-arial-*-i-*-*-15-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1 (assuming default encoding). The <size>, <slant>, and <weight> specifications are all optional. If you do not specify <slant> or <weight> then you will get whatever font variant the font server offers first. The driver also recognizes some common PostScript font names and replaces them with possible X11 or TrueType equivalents. This same sequence is used to process font requests from label.

-- COMMAND-LINE_OPTIONS --

In addition to the X Toolkit options, the following options may be specified on the command line when starting `gnuplot` or as resources in your ".Xdefaults" file (note that `raise` and `persist` can be overridden later by `set term x11 [no]raise [no]persist)`:

      `-mono`     forces monochrome rendering on color displays.
      `-gray`     requests grayscale rendering on grayscale or color displays.
                  (Grayscale displays receive monochrome rendering by default.)
      `-clear`    requests that the window be cleared momentarily before a
                  new plot is displayed.
      `-tvtwm`    requests that geometry specifications for position of the
                  window be made relative to the currently displayed portion
                  of the virtual root.
      `-raise`    raises plot window after each plot
      `-noraise`  does not raise plot window after each plot
      `-noevents` does not process mouse and key events
      `-persist`  plot windows survive after main gnuplot program exits
     
     

The options are shown above in their command-line syntax. When entered as resources in ".Xdefaults", they require a different syntax.

Example:

           gnuplot*gray: on
     
     

`gnuplot` also provides a command line option (`-pointsize <v>`) and a resource, `gnuplot*pointsize: <v>`, to control the size of points plotted with the `points` plotting style. The value `v` is a real number (greater than 0 and less than or equal to ten) used as a scaling factor for point sizes. For example, `-pointsize 2` uses points twice the default size, and `-pointsize 0.5` uses points half the normal size.

The `-noevents` switch disables all mouse and key event processing (except for `q` and `<space>` for closing the window). This is useful for programs which use the x11 driver independent of the gnuplot main program.

-- MONOCHROME_OPTIONS --

For monochrome displays, `gnuplot` does not honor foreground or background colors. The default is black-on-white. `-rv` or `gnuplot*reverseVideo: on` requests white-on-black.

-- COLOR_RESOURCES --

For color displays, `gnuplot` honors the following resources (shown here with their default values) or the greyscale resources. The values may be color names as listed in the X11 rgb.txt file on your system, hexadecimal RGB color specifications (see X11 documentation), or a color name followed by a comma and an `intensity` value from 0 to 1. For example, `blue, 0.5` means a half intensity blue.

      gnuplot*background:  white
      gnuplot*textColor:   black
      gnuplot*borderColor: black
      gnuplot*axisColor:   black
      gnuplot*line1Color:  red
      gnuplot*line2Color:  green
      gnuplot*line3Color:  blue
      gnuplot*line4Color:  magenta
      gnuplot*line5Color:  cyan
      gnuplot*line6Color:  sienna
      gnuplot*line7Color:  orange
      gnuplot*line8Color:  coral
     
     

The command-line syntax for these is simple only for background, which maps directly to the usual X11 toolkit option "-bg". All others can only be set on the command line by use of the generic "-xrm" resource override option

Examples:

           gnuplot -background coral
     

to change the background color.

           gnuplot -xrm 'gnuplot*line1Color:blue'
     

to override the first linetype color.

-- GRAYSCALE_RESOURCES --

When `-gray` is selected, `gnuplot` honors the following resources for grayscale or color displays (shown here with their default values). Note that the default background is black.

      gnuplot*background: black
      gnuplot*textGray:   white
      gnuplot*borderGray: gray50
      gnuplot*axisGray:   gray50
      gnuplot*line1Gray:  gray100
      gnuplot*line2Gray:  gray60
      gnuplot*line3Gray:  gray80
      gnuplot*line4Gray:  gray40
      gnuplot*line5Gray:  gray90
      gnuplot*line6Gray:  gray50
      gnuplot*line7Gray:  gray70
      gnuplot*line8Gray:  gray30
     
     

-- LINE_RESOURCES --

`gnuplot` honors the following resources for setting the width (in pixels) of plot lines (shown here with their default values.) 0 or 1 means a minimal width line of 1 pixel width. A value of 2 or 3 may improve the appearance of some plots.

      gnuplot*borderWidth: 2
      gnuplot*axisWidth:   0
      gnuplot*line1Width:  0
      gnuplot*line2Width:  0
      gnuplot*line3Width:  0
      gnuplot*line4Width:  0
      gnuplot*line5Width:  0
      gnuplot*line6Width:  0
      gnuplot*line7Width:  0
      gnuplot*line8Width:  0
     
     

`gnuplot` honors the following resources for setting the dash style used for plotting lines. 0 means a solid line. A two-digit number `jk` (`j` and `k` are >= 1 and <= 9) means a dashed line with a repeated pattern of `j` pixels on followed by `k` pixels off. For example, '16' is a "dotted" line with one pixel on followed by six pixels off. More elaborate on/off patterns can be specified with a four-digit value. For example, '4441' is four on, four off, four on, one off. The default values shown below are for monochrome displays or monochrome rendering on color or grayscale displays. For color displays, the default for each is 0 (solid line) except for `axisDashes` which defaults to a '16' dotted line.

      gnuplot*borderDashes:   0
      gnuplot*axisDashes:    16
      gnuplot*line1Dashes:    0
      gnuplot*line2Dashes:   42
      gnuplot*line3Dashes:   13
      gnuplot*line4Dashes:   44
      gnuplot*line5Dashes:   15
      gnuplot*line6Dashes: 4441
      gnuplot*line7Dashes:   42
      gnuplot*line8Dashes:   13
     
     

, "

-- X11 PM3D_RESOURCES --

Choosing the appropriate visual class and number of colors is a crucial point in X11 applications and a bit awkward, since X11 supports six visual types in different depths.

By default `gnuplot` uses the default visual of the screen. The number of colors which can be allocated depends on the visual class chosen. On a visual class with a depth > 12bit, gnuplot starts with a maximal number of 0x200 colors. On a visual class with a depth > 8bit (but <= 12 bit) the maximal number of colors is 0x100, on <= 8bit displays the maximum number of colors is 240 (16 are left for line colors).

Gnuplot first starts to allocate the maximal number of colors as stated above. If this fails, the number of colors is reduced by the factor 2 until gnuplot gets all colors which are requested. If dividing `maxcolors` by 2 repeatedly results in a number which is smaller than `mincolors` `gnuplot` tries to install a private colormap. In this case the window manager is responsible for swapping colormaps when the pointer is moved in and out the x11 driver's window.

The default for `mincolors` is maxcolors / (num_colormaps > 1 ? 2 : 8), where num_colormaps is the number of colormaps which are currently used by gnuplot (usually 1, if only one x11 window is open).

Some systems support multiple (different) visual classes together on one screen. On these systems it might be necessary to force gnuplot to use a specific visual class, e.g. the default visual might be 8bit PseudoColor but the screen would also support 24bit TrueColor which would be the preferred choice.

The information about an Xserver's capabilities can be obtained with the program `xdpyinfo`. For the visual names below you can choose one of StaticGray, GrayScale, StaticColor, PseudoColor, TrueColor, DirectColor. If an Xserver supports a requested visual type at different depths, `gnuplot` chooses the visual class with the highest depth (deepest). If the requested visual class matches the default visual and multiple classes of this type are supported, the default visual is preferred.

Example: on an 8bit PseudoColor visual you can force a private color map by specifying `gnuplot*maxcolors: 240` and `gnuplot*mincolors: 240`.

      gnuplot*maxcolors:  <integer number>
      gnuplot*mincolors:  <integer number>
      gnuplot*visual:     <visual name>
     
     


Node: xlib, Next: , Previous: x11_, Up: terminal

xlib

The `xlib` terminal driver supports the X11 Windows System. It generates gnuplot_x11 commands, but sends them to the output file specified by `set output '<filename>'`. `set term x11` is equivalent to `set terminal xlib; set output "|gnuplot_x11 -noevents"`. `xlib` takes the same set of options as `x11`."


Node: xlib_, Previous: xlib, Up: terminal

xlib

The `xlib` terminal driver supports the X11 Windows System. It generates gnuplot_x11 commands, but sends them to the output file specified by `set output '<filename>'`. `set term x11` is equivalent to `set terminal xlib; set output "|gnuplot_x11 -noevents"`. `xlib` takes the same set of options as `x11`."


Node: tics, Next: , Previous: terminal, Up: set-show

tics

The `set tics` command can be used to change the tics to be drawn outwards.

Syntax:

           set tics {<direction>}
           show tics
     
     

where <direction> may be `in` (the default) or `out`.

See also xtics for more control of major (labelled) tic marks and mxtics for control of minor tic marks.


Node: ticslevel, Next: , Previous: tics, Up: set-show

ticslevel

Using `splot`, one can adjust the relative height of the vertical (Z) axis using ticslevel. The numeric argument provided specifies the location of the bottom of the scale (as a fraction of the z-range) above the xy-plane. The default value is 0.5. Negative values are permitted, but tic labels on the three axes may overlap.

To place the xy-plane at a position 'pos' on the z-axis, ticslevel should be set equal to (pos - zmin) / (zmin - zmax).

Syntax:

           set ticslevel {<level>}
           show tics
     
     

See also view.


Node: ticscale, Next: , Previous: ticslevel, Up: set-show

ticscale

The size of the tic marks can be adjusted with ticscale.

Syntax:

           set ticscale {<major> {<minor>}}
           show tics
     
     

If <minor> is not specified, it is 0.5*<major>. The default size is 1.0 for major tics and 0.5 for minor tics. Note that it is possible to have the tic marks pointing outward by specifying a negative size.


Node: timestamp, Next: , Previous: ticscale, Up: set-show

timestamp

The command timestamp places the time and date of the plot in the left margin.

Syntax:

           set timestamp {"<format>"} {top|bottom} {{no}rotate}
                         {<xoff>}{,<yoff>} {"<font>"}
           unset timestamp
           show timestamp
     
     

The format string allows you to choose the format used to write the date and time. Its default value is what asctime() uses: "%a %b %d %H:%M:%S %Y" (weekday, month name, day of the month, hours, minutes, seconds, four-digit year). With `top` or `bottom` you can place the timestamp at the top or bottom of the left margin (default: bottom). `rotate` lets you write the timestamp vertically, if your terminal supports vertical text. The constants <xoff> and <yoff> are offsets from the default position given in character screen coordinates. <font> is used to specify the font with which the time is to be written.

The abbreviation `time` may be used in place of timestamp.

Example:

           set timestamp "%d/%m/%y %H:%M" 80,-2 "Helvetica"
     
     

See timefmt for more information about time format strings.


Node: timefmt, Next: , Previous: timestamp, Up: set-show

timefmt

This command applies to timeseries where data are composed of dates/times. It has no meaning unless the command `set xdata time` is given also.

Syntax:

           set timefmt "<format string>"
           show timefmt
     
     

The string argument tells `gnuplot` how to read timedata from the datafile. The valid formats are:

           Format       Explanation
           %d           day of the month, 1--31
           %m           month of the year, 1--12
           %y           year, 0--99
           %Y           year, 4-digit
           %j           day of the year, 1--365
           %H           hour, 0--24
           %M           minute, 0--60
           %s           seconds since the Unix epoch (1970-01-01, 00:00 UTC)
           %S           second, 0--60
           %b           three-character abbreviation of the name of the month
           %B           name of the month
     
     

Any character is allowed in the string, but must match exactly. \t (tab) is recognized. Backslash-octals (\nnn) are converted to char. If there is no separating character between the time/date elements, then %d, %m, %y, %H, %M and %S read two digits each, %Y reads four digits and %j reads three digits. %b requires three characters, and %B requires as many as it needs.

Spaces are treated slightly differently. A space in the string stands for zero or more whitespace characters in the file. That is, "%H %M" can be used to read "1220" and "12 20" as well as "12 20".

Each set of non-blank characters in the timedata counts as one column in the `using n:n` specification. Thus `11:11 25/12/76 21.0` consists of three columns. To avoid confusion, `gnuplot` requires that you provide a complete using specification if your file contains timedata.

Since `gnuplot` cannot read non-numerical text, if the date format includes the day or month in words, the format string must exclude this text. But it can still be printed with the "%a", "%A", "%b", or "%B" specifier: see `set format` for more details about these and other options for printing timedata. (`gnuplot` will determine the proper month and weekday from the numerical values.)

See also xdata and `Time/date` for more information.

Example:

           set timefmt "%d/%m/%Y\t%H:%M"
     

tells `gnuplot` to read date and time separated by tab. (But look closely at your data--what began as a tab may have been converted to spaces somewhere along the line; the format string must match what is actually in the file.) See also time data demo.


Node: title_, Next: , Previous: timefmt, Up: set-show

title

The `set title` command produces a plot title that is centered at the top of the plot. `set title` is a special case of label.

Syntax:

           set title {"<title-text>"} {<xoff>}{,<yoff>} {"<font>{,<size>}"}
                     {{textcolor | tc} {lt <line_type> | default}}
           show title
     
     

Specifying constants <xoff> or <yoff> as optional offsets for the title will move the title <xoff> or <yoff> character screen coordinates (not graph coordinates). For example, "`set title ,-1`" will change only the y offset of the title, moving the title down by roughly the height of one character.

<font> is used to specify the font with which the title is to be written; the units of the font <size> depend upon which terminal is used.

`textcolor lt <n>` sets the text color to that of line type <n>.

`set title` with no parameters clears the title.

See `syntax` for details about the processing of backslash sequences and the distinction between single- and double-quotes.


Node: tmargin, Next: , Previous: title_, Up: set-show

tmargin

The command tmargin sets the size of the top margin. Please see margin for details.


Node: trange, Next: , Previous: tmargin, Up: set-show

trange

The trange command sets the parametric range used to compute x and y values when in parametric or polar modes. Please see xrange for details.


Node: urange, Next: , Previous: trange, Up: set-show

urange

The urange and vrange commands set the parametric ranges used to compute x, y, and z values when in `splot` parametric mode. Please see xrange for details.


Node: variables, Next: , Previous: urange, Up: set-show

variables

The variables command lists all user-defined variables and their values.

Syntax:

           show variables
     
     


Node: version, Next: , Previous: variables, Up: set-show

version

The version command lists the version of gnuplot being run, its last modification date, the copyright holders, and email addresses for the FAQ, the gnuplot-info mailing list, and reporting bugs-in short, the information listed on the screen when the program is invoked interactively.

Syntax:

           show version {long}
     
     

When the `long` option is given, it also lists the operating system, the compilation options used when `gnuplot` was installed, the location of the help file, and (again) the useful email addresses.


Node: view, Next: , Previous: version, Up: set-show

view

The view command sets the viewing angle for `splot`s. It controls how the 3-d coordinates of the plot are mapped into the 2-d screen space. It provides controls for both rotation and scaling of the plotted data, but supports orthographic projections only. It supports both 3D projection or orthogonal 2D projection into a 2D plot-like map.

Syntax:

           set view { <rot_x>{,{<rot_z>}{,{<scale>}{,<scale_z>}}} | map }
           show view
     
     

where <rot_x> and <rot_z> control the rotation angles (in degrees) in a virtual 3-d coordinate system aligned with the screen such that initially (that is, before the rotations are performed) the screen horizontal axis is x, screen vertical axis is y, and the axis perpendicular to the screen is z. The first rotation applied is <rot_x> around the x axis. The second rotation applied is <rot_z> around the new z axis.

Command `set view map` is used to represent the drawing as a map. It can be used for contour plots, or for color pm3d maps. In the latter, take care that you properly use zrange and cbrange for input data point filtering and color range scaling, respectively.

<rot_x> is bounded to the [0:180] range with a default of 60 degrees, while <rot_z> is bounded to the [0:360] range with a default of 30 degrees. <scale> controls the scaling of the entire `splot`, while <scale_z> scales the z axis only. Both scales default to 1.0.

Examples:

           set view 60, 30, 1, 1
           set view ,,0.5
     
     

The first sets all the four default values. The second changes only scale, to 0.5.

See also ticslevel.


Node: vrange, Next: , Previous: view, Up: set-show

vrange

The urange and vrange commands set the parametric ranges used to compute x, y, and z values when in `splot` parametric mode. Please see xrange for details.


Node: x2data, Next: , Previous: vrange, Up: set-show

x2data

The x2data command sets data on the x2 (top) axis to timeseries (dates/times). Please see xdata.


Node: x2dtics, Next: , Previous: x2data, Up: set-show

x2dtics

The x2dtics command changes tics on the x2 (top) axis to days of the week. Please see xdtics for details.


Node: x2label, Next: , Previous: x2dtics, Up: set-show

x2label

The x2label command sets the label for the x2 (top) axis. Please see xlabel.


Node: x2mtics, Next: , Previous: x2label, Up: set-show

x2mtics

The x2mtics command changes tics on the x2 (top) axis to months of the year. Please see xmtics for details.


Node: x2range, Next: , Previous: x2mtics, Up: set-show

x2range

The x2range command sets the horizontal range that will be displayed on the x2 (top) axis. Please see xrange for details.


Node: x2tics, Next: , Previous: x2range, Up: set-show

x2tics

The x2tics command controls major (labelled) tics on the x2 (top) axis. Please see xtics for details.


Node: x2zeroaxis, Next: , Previous: x2tics, Up: set-show

x2zeroaxis

The x2zeroaxis command draws a line at the origin of the x2 (top) axis (y2 = 0). For details, please see zeroaxis.


Node: xdata, Next: , Previous: x2zeroaxis, Up: set-show

xdata

This command sets the datatype on the x axis to time/date. A similar command does the same thing for each of the other axes.

Syntax:

           set xdata {time}
           show xdata
     
     

The same syntax applies to ydata, zdata, x2data, y2data and cbdata.

The `time` option signals that the datatype is indeed time/date. If the option is not specified, the datatype reverts to normal.

See timefmt to tell gnuplot how to read date or time data. The time/date is converted to seconds from start of the century. There is currently only one timefmt, which implies that all the time/date columns must conform to this format. Specification of ranges should be supplied as quoted strings according to this format to avoid interpretation of the time/date as an expression.

The function 'strftime' (type "man strftime" on unix to look it up) is used to print tic-mark labels. `gnuplot` tries to figure out a reasonable format for this unless the `set format x "string"` has supplied something that does not look like a decimal format (more than one '%' or neither %f nor %g).

See also `Time/date` for more information.


Node: xdtics, Next: , Previous: xdata, Up: set-show

xdtics

The xdtics commands converts the x-axis tic marks to days of the week where 0=Sun and 6=Sat. Overflows are converted modulo 7 to dates. `set noxdtics` returns the labels to their default values. Similar commands do the same things for the other axes.

Syntax:

           set xdtics
           unset xdtics
           show xdtics
     
     

The same syntax applies to ydtics, zdtics, x2dtics, y2dtics and cbdtics.

See also the `set format` command.


Node: xlabel, Next: , Previous: xdtics, Up: set-show

xlabel

The xlabel command sets the x axis label. Similar commands set labels on the other axes.

Syntax:

           set xlabel {"<label>"} {<xoff>}{,<yoff>} {font "<font>{,<size>}"}
                      {{textcolor | tc} {lt <line_type> | default}}
           show xlabel
     
     

The same syntax applies to x2label, ylabel, y2label, zlabel and cblabel.

Specifying the constants <xoff> or <yoff> as optional offsets for a label will move it <xoff> or <yoff> character widths or heights. For example, "` set xlabel -1`" will change only the x offset of the xlabel, moving the label roughly one character width to the left. The size of a character depends on both the font and the terminal.

<font> is used to specify the font in which the label is written; the units of the font <size> depend upon which terminal is used.

`textcolor lt <n>` sets the text color to that of line type <n>.

To clear a label, put no options on the command line, e.g., "y2label".

The default positions of the axis labels are as follows:

xlabel: The x-axis label is centered below the bottom axis.

ylabel: The position of the y-axis label depends on the terminal, and can be one of the following three positions:

1. Horizontal text flushed left at the top left of the plot. Terminals that cannot rotate text will probably use this method. If x2tics is also in use, the ylabel may overwrite the left-most x2tic label. This may be remedied by adjusting the ylabel position or the left margin.

2. Vertical text centered vertically at the left of the plot. Terminals that can rotate text will probably use this method.

3. Horizontal text centered vertically at the left of the plot. The EEPIC, LaTeX and TPIC drivers use this method. The EEPIC driver will produce a stack of characters so as not to overwrite the plot. With other drivers (such as LaTeX and TPIC), the user probably has to insert line breaks using \\ to prevent the ylabel from overwriting the plot.

zlabel: The z-axis label is centered along the z axis and placed in the space above the grid level.

cblabel: The color box axis label is centered along the box and placed below or right according to horizontal or vertical color box gradient.

y2label: The y2-axis label is placed to the right of the y2 axis. The position is terminal-dependent in the same manner as is the y-axis label.

x2label: The x2-axis label is placed above the top axis but below the plot title. It is also possible to create an x2-axis label by using new-line characters to make a multi-line plot title, e.g.,

           set title "This is the title\n\nThis is the x2label"
     
     

Note that double quotes must be used. The same font will be used for both lines, of course.

If you are not satisfied with the default position of an axis label, use label instead-that command gives you much more control over where text is placed.

Please see `syntax` for further information about backslash processing and the difference between single- and double-quoted strings.


Node: xmtics, Next: , Previous: xlabel, Up: set-show

xmtics

The xmtics command converts the x-axis tic marks to months of the year where 1=Jan and 12=Dec. Overflows are converted modulo 12 to months. The tics are returned to their default labels by xmtics. Similar commands perform the same duties for the other axes.

Syntax:

           set xmtics
           unset xmtics
           show xmtics
     
     

The same syntax applies to x2mtics, ymtics, y2mtics, zmtics and cbmtics.

See also the `set format` command.


Node: xrange, Next: , Previous: xmtics, Up: set-show

xrange

The xrange command sets the horizontal range that will be displayed. A similar command exists for each of the other axes, as well as for the polar radius r and the parametric variables t, u, and v.

Syntax:

           set xrange { [{{<min>}:{<max>}}] {{no}reverse} {{no}writeback} }
                      | restore
           show xrange
     
     

where <min> and <max> terms are constants, expressions or an asterisk to set autoscaling. If the data are time/date, you must give the range as a quoted string according to the timefmt format. Any value omitted will not be changed.

The same syntax applies to yrange, zrange, x2range, y2range, cbrange, rrange, trange, urange and vrange.

The `reverse` option reverses the direction of the axis, e.g., `set xrange [0:1] reverse` will produce an axis with 1 on the left and 0 on the right. This is identical to the axis produced by `set xrange [1:0]`, of course. `reverse` is intended primarily for use with autoscale.

The `writeback` option essentially saves the range found by autoscale in the buffers that would be filled by xrange. This is useful if you wish to plot several functions together but have the range determined by only some of them. The `writeback` operation is performed during the `plot` execution, so it must be specified before that command. To restore, the last saved horizontal range use `set xrange restore`. For example,

           set xrange [-10:10]
           set yrange [] writeback
           plot sin(x)
           set yrange restore
           replot x/2
     
     

results in a yrange of [-1:1] as found only from the range of sin(x); the [-5:5] range of x/2 is ignored. Executing yrange after each command in the above example should help you understand what is going on.

In 2-d, xrange and yrange determine the extent of the axes, trange determines the range of the parametric variable in parametric mode or the range of the angle in polar mode. Similarly in parametric 3-d, xrange, yrange, and zrange govern the axes and urange and vrange govern the parametric variables.

In polar mode, rrange determines the radial range plotted. <rmin> acts as an additive constant to the radius, whereas <rmax> acts as a clip to the radius--no point with radius greater than <rmax> will be plotted. xrange and yrange are affected--the ranges can be set as if the graph was of r(t)-rmin, with rmin added to all the labels.

Any range may be partially or totally autoscaled, although it may not make sense to autoscale a parametric variable unless it is plotted with data.

Ranges may also be specified on the `plot` command line. A range given on the plot line will be used for that single `plot` command; a range given by a `set` command will be used for all subsequent plots that do not specify their own ranges. The same holds true for `splot`.

Examples:

To set the xrange to the default:

           set xrange [-10:10]
     
     

To set the yrange to increase downwards:

           set yrange [10:-10]
     
     

To change zmax to 10 without affecting zmin (which may still be autoscaled):

           set zrange [:10]
     
     

To autoscale xmin while leaving xmax unchanged:

           set xrange [*:]
     
     


Node: xtics, Next: , Previous: xrange, Up: set-show

xtics

Fine control of the major (labelled) tics on the x axis is possible with the xtics command. The tics may be turned off with the xtics command, and may be turned on (the default state) with xtics. Similar commands control the major tics on the y, z, x2 and y2 axes.

Syntax:

           set xtics {axis | border} {{no}mirror} {{no}rotate {by <ang>}}
                     {  autofreq
                      | <incr>
                      | <start>, <incr> {,<end>}
                      | ({"<label>"} <pos> {<level>} {,{"<label>"}...) }
                     { font "name{,<size>}" }
                     { textcolor <colorspec> }
           unset xtics
           show xtics
     
     

The same syntax applies to ytics, ztics, x2tics, y2tics and cbtics.

`axis` or border tells `gnuplot` to put the tics (both the tics themselves and the accompanying labels) along the axis or the border, respectively. If the axis is very close to the border, the `axis` option will move the tic labels to outside the border. The relevant margin settings will usually be sized badly by the automatic layout algorithm in this case.

`mirror` tells `gnuplot` to put unlabelled tics at the same positions on the opposite border. `nomirror` does what you think it does.

`rotate` asks `gnuplot` to rotate the text through 90 degrees, which will be done if the terminal driver in use supports text rotation. `norotate` cancels this. `rotate by <ang>` asks for rotation by <ang> degrees, supported by some terminal types.

The defaults are `border mirror norotate` for tics on the x and y axes, and `border nomirror norotate` for tics on the x2 and y2 axes. For the z axis, the `{axis | border}` option is not available and the default is `nomirror`. If you do want to mirror the z-axis tics, you might want to create a bit more room for them with border. xtics with no options restores the default border or axis if xtics are being displayed; otherwise it has no effect. Any previously specified tic frequency or position {and labels} are retained.

Positions of the tics are calculated automatically by default or if the `autofreq` option is given; otherwise they may be specified in either of two forms:

The implicit <start>, <incr>, <end> form specifies that a series of tics will be plotted on the axis between the values <start> and <end> with an increment of <incr>. If <end> is not given, it is assumed to be infinity. The increment may be negative. If neither <start> nor <end> is given, <start> is assumed to be negative infinity, <end> is assumed to be positive infinity, and the tics will be drawn at integral multiples of <incr>. If the axis is logarithmic, the increment will be used as a multiplicative factor.

The `set grid` options 'front', 'back' and 'layerdefault' affect the drawing order of the xtics, too.

Examples:

Make tics at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, ..., 9.5, 10.

           set xtics 0,.5,10
     
     

Make tics at ..., -10, -5, 0, 5, 10, ...

           set xtics 5
     
     

Make tics at 1, 100, 1e4, 1e6, 1e8.

           set logscale x; set xtics 1,100,1e8
     
     

The explicit ("<label>" <pos> <level>, ...) form allows arbitrary tic positions or non-numeric tic labels. In this form, the tics do not need to be listed in numerical order. Each tic has a position, optionally with a label. Note that the label is a string enclosed by quotes. It may be a constant string, such as "hello", may contain formatting information for converting the position into its label, such as "%3f clients", or may be empty, "". See `set format` for more information. If no string is given, the default label (numerical) is used.

An explicit tic mark has a third parameter, the "level". The default is level 0, a major tic. A level of 1 generates a minor tic. If the level is specified, then the label must also be supplied.

Examples:

           set xtics ("low" 0, "medium" 50, "high" 100)
           set xtics (1,2,4,8,16,32,64,128,256,512,1024)
           set ytics ("bottom" 0, "" 10, "top" 20)
           set ytics ("bottom" 0, "" 10 1, "top" 20)
     
     

In the second example, all tics are labelled. In the third, only the end tics are labelled. In the fourth, the unlabeled tic is a minor tic.

However they are specified, tics will only be plotted when in range.

Format (or omission) of the tic labels is controlled by `set format`, unless the explicit text of a labels is included in the `set xtics (`<label>`)` form.

Minor (unlabelled) tics can be added by the mxtics command.

In case of timeseries data, position values must be given as quoted dates or times according to the format timefmt. If the <start>, <incr>, <end> form is used, <start> and <end> must be given according to timefmt, but <incr> must be in seconds. Times will be written out according to the format given on `set format`, however.

Examples:

           set xdata time
           set timefmt "%d/%m"
           set format x "%b %d"
           set xrange ["01/12":"06/12"]
           set xtics "01/12", 172800, "05/12"
     
     
           set xdata time
           set timefmt "%d/%m"
           set format x "%b %d"
           set xrange ["01/12":"06/12"]
           set xtics ("01/12", "" "03/12", "05/12")
     

Both of these will produce tics "Dec 1", "Dec 3", and "Dec 5", but in the second example the tic at "Dec 3" will be unlabelled.


Node: xzeroaxis, Next: , Previous: xtics, Up: set-show

xzeroaxis

The xzeroaxis command draws a line at y = 0. For details, please see zeroaxis.


Node: y2data, Next: , Previous: xzeroaxis, Up: set-show

y2data

The y2data command sets y2 (right-hand) axis data to timeseries (dates/times). Please see xdata.


Node: y2dtics, Next: , Previous: y2data, Up: set-show

y2dtics

The y2dtics command changes tics on the y2 (right-hand) axis to days of the week. Please see xdtics for details.


Node: y2label, Next: , Previous: y2dtics, Up: set-show

y2label

The y2label command sets the label for the y2 (right-hand) axis. Please see xlabel.


Node: y2mtics, Next: , Previous: y2label, Up: set-show

y2mtics

The y2mtics command changes tics on the y2 (right-hand) axis to months of the year. Please see xmtics for details.


Node: y2range, Next: , Previous: y2mtics, Up: set-show

y2range

The y2range command sets the vertical range that will be displayed on the y2 (right-hand) axis. Please see xrange for details.


Node: y2tics, Next: , Previous: y2range, Up: set-show

y2tics

The y2tics command controls major (labelled) tics on the y2 (right-hand) axis. Please see xtics for details.


Node: y2zeroaxis, Next: , Previous: y2tics, Up: set-show

y2zeroaxis

The y2zeroaxis command draws a line at the origin of the y2 (right-hand) axis (x2 = 0). For details, please see zeroaxis.


Node: ydata, Next: , Previous: y2zeroaxis, Up: set-show

ydata

The ydata commands sets y-axis data to timeseries (dates/times). Please see xdata.


Node: ydtics, Next: , Previous: ydata, Up: set-show

ydtics

The ydtics command changes tics on the y axis to days of the week. Please see xdtics for details.


Node: ylabel, Next: , Previous: ydtics, Up: set-show

ylabel

This command sets the label for the y axis. Please see xlabel.


Node: ymtics, Next: , Previous: ylabel, Up: set-show

ymtics

The ymtics command changes tics on the y axis to months of the year. Please see xmtics for details.


Node: yrange, Next: , Previous: ymtics, Up: set-show

yrange

The yrange command sets the vertical range that will be displayed on the y axis. Please see xrange for details.


Node: ytics, Next: , Previous: yrange, Up: set-show

ytics

The ytics command controls major (labelled) tics on the y axis. Please see xtics for details.


Node: yzeroaxis, Next: , Previous: ytics, Up: set-show

yzeroaxis

The yzeroaxis command draws a line at x = 0. For details, please see zeroaxis.


Node: zdata, Next: , Previous: yzeroaxis, Up: set-show

zdata

The zdata command sets zaxis data to timeseries (dates/times). Please see xdata.


Node: zdtics, Next: , Previous: zdata, Up: set-show

zdtics

The zdtics command changes tics on the z axis to days of the week. Please see xdtics for details.


Node: cbdata, Next: , Previous: zdtics, Up: set-show

cbdata

Set color box axis data to timeseries (dates/times). Please see xdata.


Node: cbdtics, Next: , Previous: cbdata, Up: set-show

cbdtics

The cbdtics command changes tics on the color box axis to days of the week. Please see xdtics for details.


Node: zero, Next: , Previous: cbdtics, Up: set-show

zero

The `zero` value is the default threshold for values approaching 0.0.

Syntax:

           set zero <expression>
           show zero
     
     

`gnuplot` will not plot a point if its imaginary part is greater in magnitude than the `zero` threshold. This threshold is also used in various other parts of `gnuplot` as a (crude) numerical-error threshold. The default `zero` value is 1e-8. `zero` values larger than 1e-3 (the reciprocal of the number of pixels in a typical bitmap display) should probably be avoided, but it is not unreasonable to set `zero` to 0.0.


Node: zeroaxis, Next: , Previous: zero, Up: set-show

zeroaxis

The x axis may be drawn by xzeroaxis and removed by xzeroaxis. Similar commands behave similarly for the y, x2, and y2 axes.

Syntax:

           set {x|x2|y|y2|}zeroaxis { {linestyle | ls <line_style>}
                                      | { linetype | lt <line_type>}
                                        { linewidth | lw <line_width>}}
           unset {x|x2|y|y2|}zeroaxis
           show {x|y|}zeroaxis
     
     

By default, these options are off. The selected zero axis is drawn with a line of type <line_type> and width <line_width> (if supported by the terminal driver currently in use), or a user-defined style <line_style>.

If no linetype is specified, any zero axes selected will be drawn using the axis linetype (linetype 0). zeroaxis is equivalent to yzeroaxis. `set nozeroaxis` is equivalent to yzeroaxis.

Examples:

To simply have the y=0 axis drawn visibly:

            set xzeroaxis
     
     

If you want a thick line in a different color or pattern, instead:

            set xzeroaxis linetype 3 linewidth 2.5
     
     


Node: zlabel, Next: , Previous: zeroaxis, Up: set-show

zlabel

This command sets the label for the z axis. Please see xlabel.


Node: zmtics, Next: , Previous: zlabel, Up: set-show

zmtics

The zmtics command changes tics on the z axis to months of the year. Please see xmtics for details.


Node: zrange, Next: , Previous: zmtics, Up: set-show

zrange

The zrange command sets the range that will be displayed on the z axis. The zrange is used only by `splot` and is ignored by `plot`. Please see xrange for details.


Node: ztics, Next: , Previous: zrange, Up: set-show

ztics

The ztics command controls major (labelled) tics on the z axis. Please see xtics for details.


Node: cblabel, Next: , Previous: ztics, Up: set-show

cblabel

This command sets the label for the color box axis. Please see xlabel.


Node: cbmtics, Next: , Previous: cblabel, Up: set-show

cbmtics

The cbmtics command changes tics on the color box axis to months of the year. Please see xmtics for details.


Node: cbrange, Next: , Previous: cbmtics, Up: set-show

cbrange

The cbrange command sets the range of z-values which are colored by pm3d mode of `splot`. If the cb-axis is autoscaled, then the pm3d / palette range is taken from zrange.

Please see xrange for details on cbrange syntax.


Node: cbtics, Previous: cbrange, Up: set-show

cbtics

The cbtics command controls major (labelled) tics on the color box axis. Please see xtics for details.


Node: shell, Next: , Previous: set-show, Up: Commands

shell

The shell command spawns an interactive shell. To return to `gnuplot`, type `logout` if using VMS, exit or the END-OF-FILE character if using Unix, `endcli` if using AmigaOS, or exit if using MS-DOS or OS/2.

There are two ways of spawning a shell command: using system command or via `!` ($ if using VMS). The former command takes a string as a parameter and thus it can be used anywhere among other gnuplot commands, while the latter syntax requires to be the only command on the line. Control will return immediately to `gnuplot` after this command is executed. For example, in AmigaOS, MS-DOS or OS/2,

           ! dir
     

or

           system "dir"
     
     

prints a directory listing and then returns to `gnuplot`.

Other examples of the former syntax:

            system "date"; set time; plot "a.dat"
            print=1; if (print) replot; set out; system "lpr x.ps"
     
     

On an Atari, the `!` command first checks whether a shell is already loaded and uses it, if available. This is practical if `gnuplot` is run from `gulam`, for example.


Node: splot, Next: , Previous: shell, Up: Commands

splot

`splot` is the command for drawing 3-d plots (well, actually projections on a 2-d surface, but you knew that). It can create a plot from functions or a data file in a manner very similar to the `plot` command.

See `plot` for features common to the `plot` command; only differences are discussed in detail here. Note specifically that the binary and matrix options (discussed under "datafile-modifiers") are not available for `plot`, and `plot`'s `axes` option is not available for `splot`.

Syntax:

           splot {<ranges>}
                 <function> | "<datafile>" {datafile-modifiers}}
                 {<title-spec>} {with <style>}
                 {, {definitions,} <function> ...}
     
     

where either a <function> or the name of a data file enclosed in quotes is supplied. The function can be a mathematical expression, or a triple of mathematical expressions in parametric mode.

By default `splot` draws the xy plane completely below the plotted data. The offset between the lowest ztic and the xy plane can be changed by ticslevel. The orientation of a `splot` projection is controlled by view. See view and ticslevel for more information.

The syntax for setting ranges on the `splot` command is the same as for `plot`. In non-parametric mode, the order in which ranges must be given is xrange, yrange, and zrange. In parametric mode, the order is urange, vrange, xrange, yrange, and zrange.

The `title` option is the same as in `plot`. The operation of with is also the same as in `plot`, except that the plotting styles available to `splot` are limited to `lines`, `points`, `linespoints`, `dots`, and `impulses`; the error-bar capabilities of `plot` are not available for `splot`.

The `datafile` options have more differences.

See also `show plot`.


Node: data-file_, Next: , Previous: splot, Up: splot

data-file

As for `plot`, discrete data contained in a file can be displayed by specifying the name of the data file, enclosed in quotes, on the `splot` command line.

Syntax:

           splot '<file_name>' {binary | matrix}
                               {index <index list>}
                               {every <every list>}
                               {using <using list>}
     
     

The special filenames `""` and `"-"` are permitted, as in `plot`.

In brief, binary and matrix indicate that the data are in a special form, index selects which data sets in a multi-data-set file are to be plotted, every specifies which datalines (subsets) within a single data set are to be plotted, and using determines how the columns within a single record are to be interpreted.

The options index and every behave the same way as with `plot`; using does so also, except that the using list must provide three entries instead of two.

The `plot` options thru and smooth are not available for `splot`, but cntrparam and dgrid3d provide limited smoothing capabilities.

Data file organization is essentially the same as for `plot`, except that each point is an (x,y,z) triple. If only a single value is provided, it will be used for z, the datablock number will be used for y, and the index of the data point in the datablock will be used for x. If two or four values are provided, `gnuplot` uses the last value for calculating the color in pm3d plots. Three values are interpreted as an (x,y,z) triple. Additional values are generally used as errors, which can be used by `fit`.

Single blank records separate datablocks in a `splot` datafile; `splot` treats datablocks as the equivalent of function y-isolines. No line will join points separated by a blank record. If all datablocks contain the same number of points, `gnuplot` will draw cross-isolines between datablocks, connecting corresponding points. This is termed "grid data", and is required for drawing a surface, for contouring (contour) and hidden-line removal (hidden3d). See also grid_data.

It is no longer necessary to specify `parametric` mode for three-column `splot`s.


Node: binary, Next: , Previous: data-file_, Up: data-file_

binary

`splot` can read binary files written with a specific format (and on a system with a compatible binary file representation.)

In previous versions, `gnuplot` dynamically detected binary data files. It is now necessary to specify the keyword binary directly after the filename.

Single precision floats are stored in a binary file as follows:

           <N+1>  <y0>   <y1>   <y2>  ...  <yN>
            <x0> <z0,0> <z0,1> <z0,2> ... <z0,N>
            <x1> <z1,0> <z1,1> <z1,2> ... <z1,N>
             :      :      :      :   ...    :
     
     

which are converted into triplets:

           <x0> <y0> <z0,0>
           <x0> <y1> <z0,1>
           <x0> <y2> <z0,2>
            :    :     :
           <x0> <yN> <z0,N>
     
     
           <x1> <y0> <z1,0>
           <x1> <y1> <z1,1>
            :    :     :
     
     

These triplets are then converted into `gnuplot` iso-curves and then `gnuplot` proceeds in the usual manner to do the rest of the plotting.

A collection of matrix and vector manipulation routines (in C) is provided in `binary.c`. The routine to write binary data is

           int fwrite_matrix(file,m,nrl,nrl,ncl,nch,row_title,column_title)
     
     

An example of using these routines is provided in the file `bf_test.c`, which generates binary files for the demo file `demo/binary.dem`.

The index keyword is not supported, since the file format allows only one surface per file. The every and using filters are supported. using operates as if the data were read in the above triplet form. See also Binary File Splot Demo.


Node: example_datafile_, Next: , Previous: binary, Up: data-file_

example datafile

A simple example of plotting a 3-d data file is

           splot 'datafile.dat'
     
     

where the file "datafile.dat" might contain:

           # The valley of the Gnu.
              0 0 10
              0 1 10
              0 2 10
     
     
              1 0 10
              1 1 5
              1 2 10
     
     
              2 0 10
              2 1 1
              2 2 10
     
     
              3 0 10
              3 1 0
              3 2 10
     
     

Note that "datafile.dat" defines a 4 by 3 grid ( 4 rows of 3 points each ). Rows (datablocks) are separated by blank records.

Note also that the x value is held constant within each dataline. If you instead keep y constant, and plot with hidden-line removal enabled, you will find that the surface is drawn 'inside-out'.

Actually for grid data it is not necessary to keep the x values constant within a datablock, nor is it necessary to keep the same sequence of y values. `gnuplot` requires only that the number of points be the same for each datablock. However since the surface mesh, from which contours are derived, connects sequentially corresponding points, the effect of an irregular grid on a surface plot is unpredictable and should be examined on a case-by-case basis.


Node: matrix, Previous: example_datafile_, Up: data-file_

matrix

The matrix flag indicates that the ASCII data are stored in matrix format. The z-values are read in a row at a time, i. e.,

           z11 z12 z13 z14 ...
           z21 z22 z23 z24 ...
           z31 z32 z33 z34 ...
     

and so forth. The row and column indices are used for the x- and y-values.

A blank line or comment line ends the matrix, and starts a new surface mesh. You can select among the meshes inside a file by the index option to the `splot` command, as usual.


Node: grid_data, Next: , Previous: data-file_, Up: splot

grid_data

The 3D routines are designed for points in a grid format, with one sample, datapoint, at each mesh intersection; the datapoints may originate from either evaluating a function, see isosamples, or reading a datafile, see `splot datafile`. The term "isoline" is applied to the mesh lines for both functions and data. Note that the mesh need not be rectangular in x and y, as it may be parameterized in u and v, see isosamples.

However, `gnuplot` does not require that format. In the case of functions, 'samples' need not be equal to 'isosamples', i.e., not every x-isoline sample need intersect a y-isoline. In the case of data files, if there are an equal number of scattered data points in each datablock, then "isolines" will connect the points in a datablock, and "cross-isolines" will connect the corresponding points in each datablock to generate a "surface". In either case, contour and hidden3d modes may give different plots than if the points were in the intended format. Scattered data can be converted to a {different} grid format with dgrid3d.

The contour code tests for z intensity along a line between a point on a y-isoline and the corresponding point in the next y-isoline. Thus a `splot` contour of a surface with samples on the x-isolines that do not coincide with a y-isoline intersection will ignore such samples. Try:

            set xrange [-pi/2:pi/2]; set yrange [-pi/2:pi/2]
            set style function lp
            set contour
            set isosamples 10,10; set samples 10,10;
            splot cos(x)*cos(y)
            set samples 4,10; replot
            set samples 10,4; replot
     
     


Node: splot_overview, Previous: grid_data, Up: splot

splot_overview

`splot` can display a surface as a collection of points, or by connecting those points. As with `plot`, the points may be read from a data file or result from evaluation of a function at specified intervals, see isosamples. The surface may be approximated by connecting the points with straight line segments, see surface, in which case the surface can be made opaque with `set hidden3d.` The orientation from which the 3d surface is viewed can be changed with view.

Additionally, for points in a grid format, `splot` can interpolate points having a common amplitude (see contour) and can then connect those new points to display contour lines, either directly with straight-line segments or smoothed lines (see cntrparam). Functions are already evaluated in a grid format, determined by isosamples and samples, while file data must either be in a grid format, as described in `data-file`, or be used to generate a grid (see dgrid3d).

Contour lines may be displayed either on the surface or projected onto the base. The base projections of the contour lines may be written to a file, and then read with `plot`, to take advantage of `plot`'s additional formatting capabilities.


Node: system, Next: , Previous: splot, Up: Commands

system

system spawns shell to execute a command. Please type shell for more details.


Node: test, Next: , Previous: system, Up: Commands

test

This command graphically tests or presents terminal and palette capabilities.

Syntax:

           test {terminal | palette [rgb|rbg|grb|gbr|brg|bgr]}
     
     
test or terminal creates a display of line and point styles and other useful things appropriate for and supported by the terminal you are just using. palette draws graphically profiles R(z),G(z),B(z), where 0<=z<=1, as calculated by the current color palette. In other words, it is a beautiful plot you would have to do yourself with the result of `show palette palette 256 float`. The optional parameter, a permutation of letters rgb, determines the sequence of r,g,b profiles drawn one after the other -- try this yourself for `set palette gray`. The default sequence is rgb.


Node: unset, Next: , Previous: test, Up: Commands

unset

Options set using the `set` command may be returned to their default state by issuing the corresponding unset command.

Example:

           set xtics mirror rotate by -45 0,10,100
           ...
           unset xtics
     
     


Node: update, Previous: unset, Up: Commands

update

This command writes the current values of the fit parameters into the given file, formatted as an initial-value file (as described in the `fit`section). This is useful for saving the current values for later use or for restarting a converged or stopped fit.

Syntax:

           update <filename> {<filename>}
     
     

If a second filename is supplied, the updated values are written to this file, and the original parameter file is left unmodified.

Otherwise, if the file already exists, `gnuplot` first renames it by appending `.old` and then opens a new file. That is, "`update 'fred'`" behaves the same as "`!rename fred fred.old; update 'fred.old' 'fred'`". [On DOS and other systems that use the twelve-character "filename.ext" naming convention, "ext" will be "`old`" and "filename" will be related (hopefully recognizably) to the initial name. Renaming is not done at all on VMS systems, since they use file-versioning.]

Please see `fit` for more information.


Node: Graphical_User_Interfaces, Next: , Previous: Commands, Up: Top

Graphical User Interfaces

Several graphical user interfaces have been written for `gnuplot` and one for win32 is included in this distribution. In addition, there is a Macintosh interface (broken link).

Also several X11 interfaces exist. One of them is called xgfe, it uses the Qt library (broken link)

In addition three Tcl/Tk located at the usual Tcl/Tk repositories exist.

Bruce Ravel (ravel@phys.washington.edu) has written a new version of gnuplot-mode for GNU emacs and XEmacs. This version is based on the gnuplot.el file by Gershon Elber. While the gnuplot CVS repository has its own copy the most recent version of this package is available from http://feff.phys.washington.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode/


Node: Bugs, Next: , Previous: Graphical_User_Interfaces, Up: Top

Bugs

Floating point exceptions (floating point number too large/small, divide by zero, etc.) may occasionally be generated by user defined functions. Some of the demos in particular may cause numbers to exceed the floating point range. Whether the system ignores such exceptions (in which case `gnuplot` labels the corresponding point as undefined) or aborts `gnuplot` depends on the compiler/runtime environment.

The bessel functions do not work for complex arguments.

The gamma function does not work for complex arguments.

As of `gnuplot` version 3.7, all development has been done using ANSI C. With current operating system, compiler, and library releases, the OS specific bugs documented in release 3.5, now relegated to `old_bugs`, may no longer be relevant.

Bugs reported since the current release as well as older ones may be located via the official distribution site: http://www.gnuplot.info

Please e-mail any bugs to bug-gnuplot mailing list (see Seeking-assistance).


Node: Old_bugs, Previous: Bugs, Up: Bugs

Old_bugs

There is a bug in the stdio library for old Sun operating systems (SunOS Sys4-3.2). The "%g" format for 'printf' sometimes incorrectly prints numbers (e.g., 200000.0 as "2"). Thus, tic mark labels may be incorrect on a Sun4 version of `gnuplot`. A work-around is to rescale the data or use the `set format` command to change the tic mark format to "%7.0f" or some other appropriate format. This appears to have been fixed in SunOS 4.0.

Another bug: On a Sun3 under SunOS 4.0, and on Sun4's under Sys4-3.2 and SunOS 4.0, the 'sscanf' routine incorrectly parses "00 12" with the format "%f %f" and reads 0 and 0 instead of 0 and 12. This affects data input. If the data file contains x coordinates that are zero but are specified like '00', '000', etc, then you will read the wrong y values. Check any data files or upgrade the SunOS. It appears to have been fixed in SunOS 4.1.1.

Suns appear to overflow when calculating exp(-x) for large x, so `gnuplot` gets an undefined result. One work-around is to make a user-defined function like e(x) = x<-500 ? 0 : exp(x). This affects plots of Gaussians (exp(-x*x)) in particular, since x*x grows quite rapidly.

Microsoft C 5.1 has a nasty bug associated with the %g format for 'printf'. When any of the formats "%.2g", "%.1g", "%.0g", "%.g" are used, 'printf' will incorrectly print numbers in the range 1e-4 to 1e-1. Numbers that should be printed in the %e format are incorrectly printed in the %f format, with the wrong number of zeros after the decimal point. To work around this problem, use the %e or %f formats explicitly.

`gnuplot`, when compiled with Microsoft C, did not work correctly on two VGA displays that were tested. The CGA, EGA and VGA drivers should probably be rewritten to use the Microsoft C graphics library. `gnuplot` compiled with Borland C++ uses the Turbo C graphics drivers and does work correctly with VGA displays.

VAX/VMS 4.7 C compiler release 2.4 also has a poorly implemented %g format for 'printf'. The numbers are printed numerically correct, but may not be in the requested format. The K&R second edition says that for the %g format, %e is used if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or equal to the precision. The VAX uses %e format if the exponent is less than -1. The VAX appears to take no notice of the precision when deciding whether to use %e or %f for numbers less than 1. To work around this problem, use the %e or %f formats explicitly. From the VAX C 2.4 release notes: e,E,f,F,g,G Result will always contain a decimal point. For g and G, trailing zeros will not be removed from the result.

VAX/VMS 5.2 C compiler release 3.0 has a slightly better implemented %g format than release 2.4, but not much. Trailing decimal points are now removed, but trailing zeros are still not removed from %g numbers in exponential format.

The two preceding problems are actually in the libraries rather than in the compilers. Thus the problems will occur whether `gnuplot` is built using either the DEC compiler or some other one (e.g. the latest gcc).

ULTRIX X11R3 has a bug that causes the X11 driver to display "every other" graph. The bug seems to be fixed in DEC's release of X11R4 so newer releases of ULTRIX don't seem to have the problem. Solutions for older sites include upgrading the X11 libraries (from DEC or direct from MIT) or defining ULTRIX_KLUDGE when compiling the x11.trm file. Note that the kludge is not an ideal fix, however.

The constant HUGE was incorrectly defined in the NeXT OS 2.0 operating system. HUGE should be set to 1e38 in plot.h. This error has been corrected in the 2.1 version of NeXT OS.

Some older models of HP plotters do not have a page eject command 'PG'. The current HPGL driver uses this command in HPGL_reset. This may need to be removed for these plotters. The current PCL5 driver uses HPGL/2 for text as well as graphics. This should be modified to use scalable PCL fonts.

On the Atari version, it is not possible to send output directly to the printer (using `/dev/lp` as output file), since CRs are added to LFs in binary output. As a work-around, write the output to a file and copy it to the printer afterwards using a shell command.

On AIX 4, the literal 'NaNq' in a datafile causes the special internal value 'not-a-number' to be stored, rather than setting an internal 'undefined' flag. A workaround is to use `set datafile missing 'NaNq'`.


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